### Calculation of the parameters of longitudinal-action vibrational pile drivers.

The initial data for calculation are: the mass of the pile to be driven *m _{o}*, in kg; the geometric dimensions of the pile to be driven;the depth of sinking l, in m; and the soil conditions.

1. The resistance of the soil is determined. The calculated value FCR of the critical separation resistance at a given maximum sinking depth (kN) is determined on the basis of the original data characterizing the soil conditions:

where i is the ordinal number of the soil layer of thickness l_{i} passed through during the sinking, *k* is the total number of layers and *Z* is the perimeter of the cross section. The values of the specific separation resistance *σ* are assumed according to the data of Table 5.

Type of soil | For a pile, kPa | For a sheet pile, kN/m | |||

Steel Pipe Piles | Reinforced concrete piles | Tubular piles open on the bottom | Light sections | Heavy sections | |

Water-soaked sandy and fluid-plastic clay soils | 6 | 7 | 5 | 12 | 14 |

The same, soils with interlayers of compact clay or gravelly soils | 8 | 10 | 7 | 17 | 20 |

Stiff plastic clay soils | 15 | 18 | 10 | 20 | 25 |

Semihard and hard clay soils | 25 | 30 | 20 | 40 | 50 |

2. After determination of the tentative mass value *m _{o}*, in kg, of the pile to be driven and the parts of the vibratory pile driver rigidly connected with it, the approximate value of the static moment of the mass of the eccentrics, in kg • m, is calculated:

where ψ = 0.8 for reinforced concrete piles and ψ = 1 for the other piles sunk.

The recommended vibrational amplitude A_{o} required for an effective sinking is determined with the data of Table 6.

Types of piles to be driven | A_{o}, mm | |||||

Sandy soils | Clayey soils | |||||

Vibration frequency, Hz | 5-12 | 13-17 | 18-25 | 5-12 | 13-17 | 18-25 |

Steel sheet pile, steel tubes with open end, and other piles with cross-sectional area up to 150 cm^{2} | – | 8-10 | 4-6 | – | 10-12 | 6-8 |

Tubular piles (with closed end) with cross-sectional area up to 800 cm^{2} | – | 10-12 | 6-8 | – | 12-15 | 8-10 |

Reinforced concrete, square or rectangular cross section with area up to 2,000 cm^{2} | 12-15 | – | – | 15-20 | – | – |

Reinforced concrete tubular piles with large diameter, inserted with excavation of soil from tube cavity | 6-10 | 4-6 | – | 8-12 | 6-10 | – |

3. The frequency of the vibrations of the vibratory pile driver, Hz, is calculated as follows:

When the set of parameters of the vibratory pile driver is derived with a previously undetermined interval of change in the *θ* value, it must be determined from the condition

The amplitude of the vibration velocity *v _{o}* for a successful sinking should be within the interval of 0.5-0.8 m/s ;

*אַ*is a coefficient that takes the resilience of the soil into account:

*אַ*= 0.6-0.8 for low-frequency vibratory pile drivers (5-10 Hz) and

*אַ*= 1 for the others. If the value

*θ*is determined by this method, the static moment of mass of the eccentrics is calculated with the formula, in kg • m:

4. The required minimum mass of the vibratory pile drive and driven piles, in kg, is determined as follows:

where *U _{c}* is the cross sectional surface, in cm

^{2};

*p*are the recommended pressure values required. The dependence of the pressure

_{o}*p*, in MPa, on the type and dimensions of piles driven into saturated sandy and loose clayey soils is given below:

_{o}Steel tubes of small diameter and other piles with a cross sectional surface up to 150 cm^{2} | 0.15 – 0.3 |

tubular steel (with closed end) piles with a cross sectional surface up to 800 cm^{2} | 0.4 – 0.5 |

reinforced concrete piles of square and rectangular section with an area up to 2000 cm^{2} | 0.6 – 0.8 |

5. The value of the ratio of the force of gravity to the amplitude of the compelling force P* _{θ}* is verified:

v_{1} | v_{2} | |

for a steel sheet pile | 0.15 | 0.5 |

for light piles | 0.3 | 0.6 |

for heavy piles and tubular ones | 0.4 | 1.0 |

In performing the calculations with respect to this point, either the mass *m _{o}* or the amplitude of the compelling force (due to an increase in

*K*or

*θ*) is increased if necessary.

6. Finally, the values *K*, *θ* and *m _{o}* are precisely defined, after which these parameters are verified with the formulas:

In addition, the precisely defined parameters are verified with the formulas of paragraphs 4 and 5.

7. The power of the driving motor is determined by:

where D is the diameter of the journals of the shafts of a vibration exciter, in cm.

The efficiency of transfer from the motor to vibration exciter (equal to 0.9), the coefficient of rolling friction in the bearings of the vibration exciter (equal to 10^{-3}), and the additional consumption of power in the vibration of the soil mass, assumed to be 15% of the power expended to overcome the resistance of the soil, were studied here.

### Calculation of the parameters of longitudinal-action impact-vibration hammers.

The original data for the calculation are the same parameters as for the vibratory pile drivers.

1. On the basis of the original data on the pile driven, the mass of the impact part of the vibratory hammer is determined, in kg:

2. The amplitude value of the compelling force, kN, is determined:

The lower limit of the parameter d (d = 2-6) is designated for impact-vibration hammers that drive piles with a relatively small cross sectional surface (up to 50 cm^{2}). The parameter d also increases with an increase in cross sectional surface.

3. The preliminary depression force of the working springs is calculated, in kN:

The parameter sin *α* = 0.3 – 0.5. An attempt must be made to assure the value sin *α* = 0.4 in designing the hammers.

4. The static moment of mass of the eccentrics is determined, in kg • m:

The frequency of the compelling force of the hammer *θ* lies within the interval of 6-10 Hz.

5. The optimal stiffness of the working springs of the vibratory hammer is, in N/cm:

In designing the hammers it is desirable to obtain the minimum *c _{1}*, value from the recommended optimal range.

6. The ratio *γ _{1}* between the frequency of the natural vibrations of the impact part and the frequency of the compelling force:

7. The dimensionless resistance of the soil *f* and γ is calculated with the *F* and *R* values (9). The existence of an impact-vibrational mode is verified in terms of the parameters, sin *α*, *γ _{1}*, and

*f*+ γ (see Figure 22).

8. The dimensionless impact velocity is calculated (correlation formula):

9. The velocity of the impact part at the moment of impact is determined, in m/s:

With respect to the durability of the hammer, the impact velocity should not exceed 2 m/s. If the value *x _{imp}* » 2 m/s with the parameters chosen, it is necessary to select other parameters that assure a value

*x*≤ 2 m/s

_{imp}10. The dimensionless sinking per impact (correlation formula)

11. The possibility of driving under the given soil conditions is checked:

The value *Δ _{L}* is adopted according to the data (Yu. R. Perkov, V. N. Shaevich, 1974) given below:

water-soaked sands of medium coarseness and compactness | 0.16 |

low-moisture sands of medium coarseness and compactness | 0.46 |

wet sands of medium coarseness and compactness | 0.22 |

loams of stiff-plastic consistency | 0.32 |

macroporous sandy loams of a hard consistency | 0.28 |

If it turns out that *x _{PL}* <

*Δ*, it is necessary to reduce the parameter sin

_{L}*α*to 0.2-0.3 and repeat the calculation. When

*x*again proves to be less than

_{PL}*Δ*, it can be assumed that the impact vibrational driving is ineffective under the given soil conditions.

_{L}12. The dimensionless rising height of the impact part is calculated:

13. The maximum rise value of the impact part is determined, in cm:

14. The maximum reaction of the vibratory hammer springs is calculated, in kN:

15. The drive engine power required is calculated, in kW:

The transfer efficiency from the vibration exciter to the motor (equal to 0.9) and the friction coefficient in the supports of the shafts (equal to 10^{-3}) are taken into account in this formula.

The selection of the parameters of the the impact-vibrational machines for extracting the piles from the soil is done by the same method, but in this case, in kN,

### Calculation of the parameters of longitudinal-rotatory-action vibratory pile drivers.

The initial data for the calculation are the same characteristics as for longitudinal-action vibratory pile drivers.

1. The basic calculation characteristics of the driving system are determined:

where *σ _{P,V}* is the specific resistance on the lateral surface of the shell being driven with longitudinal-rotational vibrations; the

*σ*values are given in Table 7, compiled according to the results of experimental studies:

_{P,V}where *U _{t}* is the area of the end surface of the shell, in

*m*; R is the calculated resistance of the soil under the end of the shell, in kPa (undertaken according to the data of SNip 11-02 — 03.85).

^{2}soils | tubular piles with closed lower end | shells driven with removal of the soil |

water-soaked and soft -plastic clayey soils | 4.0 | 2.5 |

the same, with interlayers of compact or gravelly soils | 6.0 | 3.5 |

clayey stiff -plastic soils | 10.0 | 5.0 |

_{P,V}, in kPa on the lateral

surface of the driven shell under the effect of longitudinal-rotational

vibrations.

2. The required dimensionless velocity values of the vibrations are determined:

where *v _{n}* is the projected driving velocity in m/min (recommended value:

*v*= 0.2 -1.0 m/min) ;

_{n}*v*=

_{n}*v*; θ is the frequency (recommended value:

_{o}/a^{2}*θ*= 6-7 Hz).

3. The amplitudes of the compelling force and the static moment of mass of the eccentrics are determined, in kg – m:

4. The separation conditions of the shell relative to the adjacent soil are verified:

The *A _{min}* values are given in Table 8.

Pile driven | sandy soils | clayey soils | ||

6-9 Hz | 13-16 Hz | 6-9 Hz | 13-16 Hz | |

tubular pile with closed lower end | 3.0 | 1.0 | 4.0 | 1.5 |

shells, driven with removal of the soil | 2.4 | 1.2 | 3.0 | 2.0 |

_{min}, in mm, under the effect

of longitudinal-rotational vibrations.

5. The magnitude of eccentricity of application of the compelling force is determined:

The *δ* value is selected as a function of the ratio of vibrator mass *m _{1}* and the mass of the driven shell

*m*;

_{2}6. The drive power of the vibratory longitudinal-rotational action pile driver is calculated, in kW:

where D is the diameter of the support of the eccentric shaft, in mm; *η _{ver}* is the coefficient that takes into account the losses in transfer from the engine to the eccentric shafts.

7. It is recommended that the effort in extracting the tubular pile from the soil under the action of longitudinal-rotational vibrations be determined with the formula

where *F _{IZ}* is the mean force required to overcome the lateral resistance of the soil during vibratory extraction:

*F*=

_{IZ}*ζF*;

_{e}*F*is the separation resistance along the lateral surface of a tubular pile; and

_{e}*ζ*is the coefficient of decrease in the lateral resistance as a function of the vibratory mode.

The *ζ* value is determined by the graphs plotted with Equation (35) and given in Figure 19, as a function of the ratio of the extraction velocity (*v _{IZ}*) to the amplitude of the velocity of the longitudinal component of the vibrations (

*Aω*). The rate of rise in the tube should not exceed 0.5-1.0 m/min in the first extraction stage.

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