The vibration method of immersing sheet piles, piles and pipes in the Soviet Union was widespread in the postwar years.
The initiative in the development of this method belongs to D. D. Barkan. Back in 1934 in the laboratory of the research Institute of Foundations of Structures experiments were conducted , during which for the first time it was possible to observe the effect vibration immersion. In the summer of 1938, under the leadership D. D. Barkan, experiments were carried out on immersion in dense water-saturated sandy soils of wooden and reinforced concrete piles using a vibrating machine, which had a weight of about 1.5 t and at 900 rpm could develop a disturbing force up to 18 t.
First significant advances in development and application vibromethod were achieved after the end of the Great Patriotic War. At Gorkovgesstroy with vibrators designed by D. D. Barkan and V. N. Tupikov, more than 3600 steel sheet piles were driven to a depth 9 m into sands and light loams saturated with water. The time required for immersion of one pile was 2-3 minutes, whereas, when using double-acting hammers, the work took 20-30 minutes.
The experience of Gorkovgesstroy showed that in many cases the vibration method can give a much greater effect than having at that time, the percussion method was widespread. In particular, it turned out that when using vibrators instead of hammers, labor productivity increases by at least three times, the cost of work is reduced by about half, and also significant energy savings were achieved.
Results achieved at the Gorkovgesstroy. served as an impetus for further research work in this area. In 1950, B.P. Tatarnikov  carried out the first successful experience in driving heavy reinforced concrete piles with the help of a powerful vibrator he designed with variable settings. The experiments gave valuable scientific and practical results and brought researchers closer to a correct understanding of the mechanism of the process of vibration diving.
The experimental data of B. P. Tatarnikov were taken as the basis designs of low-frequency pile vibratory pile drivers of the longitudinal actions successfully currently used in bridge building.
In 1949-1950. O. A. Savinov and A. Ya. Luskin ,  at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Hydrotechnical and Sanitary Works (VNIIGS,) carried out research that has made it possible to clarify a number of issues related to the choice of optimal parameters pile vibratory drivers and, in particular, as a first approximation, to study the relationship between speed and maximum depth immersion of the pile on the value of the pressure acting on it. The authors have proposed a new type of vibrodriver, on the basis of which later a series of machines was created, used in hydrotechnical and industrial construction, in the production drilling work, etc.
Of great importance for the development of the method of vibrational immersion D. D. Barkan , O. Ya. Shekhter , N. A. Preobrazhenskaya  and others carried out further experimental studies in the research of foundations, which also included E. M. Sinelnikov and a group of his employees (with the participation of the authors) in the Central research laboratory Stalingradgidrostroy ; A. P. Bessonov and N. P. Raevsky under the guidance of Academician I. I. Artobolevsky  at the Institute of Mechanical Engineering Academy of Sciences of the USSR; A. S. Golovachev ,  and others at the Central Scientific Transport Construction Research Institute (TSNIIS,) along with others. As a result of these works, it was possible to obtain new data characterizing the features of the process of vibration dives, as well as offer improved vibration machine designs.
Due to the complexity of the physical and mechanical phenomena that accompany the vibration immersion process specified in experimental studies, as well as previous ones, could not give an exhaustive answer to some questions related to the selection of optimal parameters of vibratory hammers. , In this regard, many researchers have undertaken attempts to construct a theory of vibrational immersion .
Among the works in this direction include studies by D. D. Barkan , Yu. I. Neimark , I. I. Blechman , M. Ya. Kushulya and A. V. Shlyakhtin , P. A. Osmakova  and others. Theoretical studies have provided a deeper understanding of the mechanism vibration immersion process, reveal some important patterns of this process.
The development of the vibration immersion method was carried out under a close creative community of research and production organization, which made it possible to achieve significant success in introducing this method into construction practice.
When immersing a steel sheet pile at the largest hydraulic construction sites – Kuibyshevgidrostroy, Stalingradgidrostroy, construction of the Kakhovka hydroelectric complex and others – vibratory hammers largely replaced impact pile hammers. The introduction of new machines provided an increase in productivity labor by at least 3-4 times, and the cost of work has decreased about twice. So, for example, at Stalingradgidrostroy, where vibrators designed by VNIIGS were used, for up to 35-40 sheet piles per shift , while the norm for double acting hammers was 8 piles.
At the construction of the Kakhovskaya HPP, the sheet piling was carried out in difficult ground conditions. With the help of vibratory hammers whose design was research institute-based, performance per shift averaged about 20 sheet piles . Equally successful results have been obtained in a number of other cases.
In particular, a significant technical and economic effect gave the use of vibrohammers in immersion work of steel sheet pile in industrial  and civil  construction. Under these conditions, based on the use of vibration method, it was possible to carry out complex mechanization excavation works and trenching.
An important achievement of Soviet construction technology should be the use of vibratory hammers to extract steel sheet pile. For the first time – on a production scale vibroextraction steel sheet pile was used in Leningrad . Here from 1952 to 1958 more than 8 thousand tons of sheet piles of heavy profiles (Larsen IV-V) were driven and extracted. Accumulated experience has shown that with the help of vibratory pile drivers the rows are relatively easy to disassemble, and with one self-propelled crane with a lifting capacity of 5-7 tons, equipped with a vibrator, it is possible to extract up to 20 sheet piles per shift. Successful results have also been obtained at other sites, for example, to Gorkov Gesstroy, where with the help of vibrators in 1955, more than 4 thousand tons of flat profile steel sheet pile were extracted .
Good results are achieved when wooden block piles and wooden piles were immersed in weak soils. Using one of the vibrators designed by VNIIGS brigade under the leadership of I. T. Danilin, plant “Russian Diesel” in Leningrad immersed per shift up to 80 six-meter wooden piles. At the construction site of the house  the same brigade installed 25-30 packages of cobbled wooden sheet pile with a package width of 50 cm, driven to a depth 6 m. Sheet pile 16 cm thick and 6.5 m long at the construction of the supply canal of the Riga CHPP, the performance of 25 packs per shift was achieved.
In all the above cases, the quality of work was high, since when using vibratory pile drivers, the sheet pile does not experience significant effort; dense and even sheet pile walls are obtained, the heads of the packages are not damaged.
Employees of a construction trust in Riga together with scientific employees of the Research Institute of Foundations ,  developed a technology and equipment for the construction of sand vibrating piles (vertical sand drains). For immersion and retrieval inventory steel pipe, which is part of the specified equipment, vibrators were used, with the help of of which about 35 thousand sand piles were manufactured.
In railway construction – in the construction of overpasses, bridge supports and foundations of support lines of the contact network , [54 ] – over the past 8 – 10 years, vibration immersion has been successfully mastered reinforced concrete piles. It was of particular importance introduction of thin-walled reinforced concrete shells of large diameter, immersion of which without vibration is almost impossible. On a number of bridges in the Soviet Union, as well as in the Chinese People’s Republic, economical support on this kind of piles replaced expensive massive coffered foundations. So, at the construction of the Wuhan Bridge, vibrators were more than 240 prefabricated shell piles, weighing 40-50 tons each, were driven to a depth of up to 23 m. The use of a columnar structure of the foundations of the supports, the main elements of which were immersed by vibration, made it possible to complete the construction of the bridge two years ahead of schedule with significantly lower costs , .
Along with the positive qualities, there were also disadvantages vibratory machines for driving sheet piling, piles and pipes: relatively large weight and significant required drive power. To overcome these shortcomings, it was proposed method of vibrodriving piles in combination with jetting, as well as the design of vibration-impact machines (vibration hammers) and double action vibrators.
It turned out that the method of vibro-immersion with jetting can successfully applied under certain conditions in dry sandy soils, and in clay soils. Particularly favorable results gave a preliminary jetting, which, on the recommendation the authors was carried out on a number of objects . Distinguished by extreme simplicity. pre-jetting is carried out in parallel with vibration immersion work without compromising performance labor of workers.
With. A. Tsaplin, D. D. Barkan, A. S. Golovachev and V. I. Chernyaev, M. G. Efremov, A. Ya. Luskin and others the authors proposed various schemes for the device of impact-vibration machines. Although the work on their implementation met a number of difficulties and by now has not yet been fully completed, it can be assumed that in the near future it will give interesting and fruitful results.
In 1949, V. A. Yaroshenko proposed to immerse cylindrical pile-shells, characterized by high rigidity at torsion, with the help of rotational (relative to the longitudinal Axis of the shell) oscillations. Such fluctuations are good for overcoming the lateral resistance of the soil to the pile sinking, but are ineffective in overcoming frontal resistance. The authors, together with M. G. Tseitlin proposed to combine longitudinal and rotational vibrations when shells are immersed; as the subsequent experiments of M. G. Tseitlin  showed, the indicated combination gives a significant increase in the efficiency of the vibrator with a simultaneous relative reduction in consumption energy. Work is currently being completed on the creation production samples of double acting vibratory hammers, the use of which will further contribute to wide implementation in industrial, hydraulic and transport construction of progressive structures of supports on piles large diameter.
Separate attention should be paid to works aimed at expanding the boundaries of the use of vibration machines for sheet piling, piles and pipes.
The most significant effect was the use of vibration machines for the production of exploratory drilling. For the last over the years, this method has become widespread and developed into a separate field of technology. In the book specified area affected only to the extent that it may be useful in piling work.
The positive effect was given by the use of vibrators and in other areas, in particular with trenchless laying pipes, compaction of soils and concrete mixtures, destruction of frozen materials, etc.
Within the framework of one book it is impossible even to briefly list all the work being done in this new, rapidly developing field modern technology both in the Soviet Union and abroad. There is no doubt that in the coming years highly efficient vibratory machines will find the widest application in the production pile, drilling and many other types of labor-intensive work, which will contribute to further technological progress construction, reducing its cost, speeding up work, increasing their qualities.
In this regard, it is of great importance for civil engineers to have a wide knowledge of the achievements of modern theory and practice of applying the vibrational method. Experience exchange will allow joint efforts to overcome difficulties faster, still hindering the introduction of the external method in certain areas construction.
A significant part of this work contains materials research and observations made by the authors. Together at the same time, the results of the most important works, performed by other researchers. Much attention has been paid also generalization of advanced production experience in the field of application of the vibration method, accumulated in recent years in the Soviet Union and in the Chinese People’s Republic.
By publishing their work, the authors consider it their duty to express deep gratitude to professors. R. Medvedev, E. M. Sinelnikov and engineer A. S. Ladinsky for support and valuable advice. The authors take the opportunity to note also great help; which over the years has consistently been them in their work by engineers A. m. Rukavtsov, E. G. Godes, E. M. Perlei and Yu. V. Dietrich.
In conclusion, the authors express their gratitude to the scientific editor of the book, Professor D. D. Barkan, for valuable comments taken into account when preparing the manuscript for publication.
The authors will gratefully accept all comments on the book, who are asked to be sent to the address: Leningrad, Nevsky Prospekt, 28, Leningrad branch of Gosstroizdat.
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