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The use of vibration technology allows:
- increase labor productivity while saving energy and material resources;
- use mobile means of vibration technology and use them without bulky support structures for the perception of reactive forces;
- complex mechanization of construction processes.
Table 1 lists the types of work in which the use of vibration technology provides advantages over the traditional one when using certain structural elements or working bodies. The effective implementation of vibration technology in each specific type of work requires the use of not only vibration equipment, but also the appropriate lifting and auxiliary equipment, which ensures the complexity of solving a specific production problem. So, when performing work on immersion (extraction) of sheet piles and shell piles, on the installation of stuffed piles, etc., in many cases, to achieve such complexity, it is sufficient to use general-purpose jib cranes equipped with a vibration isolation system. For a number of other works (driving individual pile clusters, drilling engineering-geological wells, development and repair of water supply wells, trenchless laying of pipelines), it is advisable to use effective, technologically convenient vibration means as part of fairly simple special-purpose units. The works of VNIIGS, Orgenergostroy, TsNIIS, PNIIS created units that are widely used in construction.
|Type of work||Immersed (retrievable) elements or used working bodies||The main operations that determine the efficiency of the technological process||Benefits of vibrating technology compared to traditional|
Construction of high bearing capacity supports
Filter device In wells for water
Drilling wells for water, engineering and geological
Freezing well installation
|Sheet, prismatic piles|
Filter columns with expansion shoe Pipes
|Vibratory immersion of elements into the ground||Increase in labor productivity, reduction of metal consumption|
|Removal of sheet pile walls|
Exposure of filters during the construction of wells for water
Liquidation of water wells, freezing, engineering-geological
Casing intermediate strings
Casing pipes, filter columns
|Vibratory extraction of elements from the soil||Extraction of elements from the ground, return of sheet piles and pipes for reuse|
|Drilling wells, extracting soil from pipes, shell piles, lower wells|
Installation of filled concrete and sand piles
Construction of trenches during construction using the “wall in the ground” method
Installation of thin impervious curtains
Deep compaction of sandy soil
Destruction of hard rocks during shock-rope drilling
Extraction of soil from pipes during their horizontal punching
|Tubular soil intake or leader|
Flat dredger Inventory flat elements
Spatial: working body
Flat, round or cross chisel Tubular soil intake
|Vibratory immersion of elements into the ground with their subsequent vibration extraction (within one construction cycle)||Increasing labor productivity, reducing the consumption of metal, cement, eliminating manual labor|
|Development of wells for water|
Restoring the productivity of water wells
Pumping water from wells
Alignment of sand fill under water
|Tube with discs|
Pipe with valve assembly
Tube with discs
|Vibrational hydrodynamic treatment of the medium||Increasing labor productivity, achieving high quality work|
Table 1. Types of work in which, due to the use of vibration technology, a technical and economic effect is achieved compared to traditional technology
Figure 2 shows the variants of aggregation of vibration equipment with various basic machines and mechanisms of general purpose or special ones, worked out by many years of practice, which allow to realize the advantages of vibration technology to the greatest extent in the production of a number of construction works. By means of vibration technology, complex technical problems are solved using general-purpose mechanisms (cranes, drilling rigs,) simple auxiliary devices (support frames for winches) or cars and tractors with the appropriate equipment. Simple equipment with simple methods of organizing the production of work due to vibration becomes competitive in comparison with rather complex non-vibration installations, and in some cases surpasses them in terms of its indicators (labor productivity, reduction in the cost of work.)
Thus, due to the use of vibration means for pulling and extracting the sheet pile, it was possible everywhere to abandon bulky pile drivers and switch to the use of mobile cranes and excavator cranes. When installing filled piles, it is also possible to use ordinary cranes with attached vibration equipment instead of complex drilling complexes of various types. For the manufacture of anchors in the ground, expensive special drilling machines are used, which can be successfully replaced by simple support frames equipped with a vibratory hammer and a winch with a pulley reeving. Successful extraction of casing pipes from the soil during the liquidation of various wells without vibration means with sufficiently light traction devices is generally impossible; since bulky installations of static action, developing large forces, lead to pipe breaks in the process of pulling out.
Tractor-mounted vibrating-driving units are widely used for driving piles (mainly under power transmission line supports); for drilling engineering-geological wells, vibration units on a truck chassis are used; for the development and restoration of the productivity of wells for water, installations on a truck base, equipped with a mounting mast and a vibrator with a set of working bodies, have been used. The use of the latter allows not only to effectively develop and repair water wells, but also to abandon the use of drilling rigs in these works, releasing them for drilling new wells.
It should be noted that the greatest effect from the use of vibration is achieved if the parameters, design solution and auxiliary equipment of the vibration machine correspond to the specifics of the work performed. Taking into account the features of a particular type of work when creating vibration equipment and its rational aggregation with auxiliary devices allows us to develop and apply the most effective vibration technology.
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