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The following bibliography is a short listing of papers, books and theses on both pile dynamics and vibratory pile driving.

In addition to the listings of the works themselves, in some cases a description of the work is given. This can range from nothing to a brief phrase to a complete abstract.

This bibliography is not "complete" in any sense of the word but does contain references to works that may not appear in others. Any corrections or additions should be brought to the webmaster's attention.

Supplemental Bibliography

In addition to the main bibliography, we also have a Supplemental Bibliography. It is divided into three parts, mostly for speed of loading and convenience. They can be accessed as follows:

  1. Part I
  2. Part II
  3. Part III

The listings are unedited and not arranged in any particular order; you will need to use text searches to find entries, whether by key word or by author. Not all of the entries are entirely relevant to the wave equation as applied to piling but virtually all pertain to driven piles. You can also use the site search engine in the upper left hand corner to further search this site for what you are looking for.

The Supplemental Bibliography was compiled in 1995 and will not be updated.

Titles listed by Author.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


-A-

ABEDZADEH, A.A. (1993) Dynamic Analysis Of Piles And Pile Groups: Theory And Application (Elastodynamics, Loading). Ph.D. Thesis, Univesity of Colorado at Boulder. UMI ProQuest AAC 9406745.

This thesis contains the results of a systematic study aimed at providing a rational framework as well as a set of practical tools for the dynamic analysis of piles and pile groups under multi-directional dynamic loading. In the context of three-dimensional elastodynamics, a rigorous formulation is first presented for a single pile which is modeled as both a beam-column and a thin-walled cylindrical shell. By virtue of integral equation methods and ring load Green's functions, it is shown that the requisite traction and kinematic compatibilities on the contact surface, singular stress concentrations at the pile ends, and the three-dimensional energy radiation conditions can be observed exactly for general static, dynamic, and incident wave loadings. The problem is reduced to a set of coupled Fredholm integral equations. By an analysis of the kernels involved, the detailed nature of the stress singularities is rendered explicit, and incorporated into an efficient numerical procedure. Numerical results are used to evaluate the accuracy of existing analyses. The problem is also extended t the case of a pile under incident seismic waves. For general applications, the singularity analysis on the basis of the governing differential equations has also been developed which can be used for a body of revolution under general asymmetric loading in a linear elastic and poro-elastic material. This asymptotic analysis can be extended to a general system of piles. With the attention shifted to pile group behaviors, an exact formulation using the elastodynamic point-load solutions is derived for the pile-soil-pile interaction problem. With the capability of dealing with general variation of the interfacial load transfers in both the angular and axial directions for each pile, the analysis leads to a set of governing integral equations which can be solved numerically. The computational is facilitated by the recognition that the integration of point load solution in the axial direction can be performed in closed form. The numerical results furnish a basis upon which the merits and inaccuracy of the few existing approaches can be assessed in a rational manner. The results also compare well with an experimental study. With the current solution as the background, effort is directed to the development of a simplified method for practical applications where a large number of piles might be involved. On the basis of a reduction of the rigorous mathematical formulation, it is shown that a practical method of analysis is feasible by which one can accurately predict all the essential features of the pile group problem.

ABELL, M.L., and BRASELTON, J.P. (1994a) The Maple V Handbook. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

ABELL, M.L., and BRASELTON, J.P. (1994b) Differential Equations with Maple V. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

AHMED, S. A.-W. (1989) Dynamic Analyses Of Pile Driving (Pile Driving Formulae). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow. UMI ProQuest AAC DX96289.

Several approaches to the dynamic analyses of pile driving are explored in this thesis. These include pile driving formulae, single degree of freedom (SDOF) models, the wave equation approach and a finite element model. In the elementary models, the pile is modelled as a rigid mass while the soil is represented by various simple rheological mechanisms (spring-slider-dashpot models). Analytical and numerical formulations are developed and the parametric results of the analyses are presented in non-dimensional form. A study of the wave equation method of the analysis culminates in the development of some simple analytical expressions (analogous to the pile driving formulae) which may prove useful in practice. Some comparisons between the elementary SDOF models, the pile driving formulae and the wave equation have been undertaken in order to assess their strengths and highlight their various shortcomings. The development of a finite element model for pile driving is discussed in detail with particular emphasis on spatial discretisation (especially the viscous boundaries) and the time integration schemes. A limited parametric study has been conducted in order to gain some insight into the behaviour of piles during driving and to follow the evolution of failure in soils around and beneath the piles. Further work in this area is indicated although computational costs seems to be too high to justify routine use of the finite element method.

AKAGI, T., MIURA, K., KAWAKAMI, K., and SAEKI, E. "On the Embedded Length of Long Steel Pipe Piles with Large Diameter." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, pp. 69-72.

AKAI, K., and ADACHI, T. (1987) "A Cyclic Elasto-Plastic Constitutive Model for Sand." Proceedings of the International Workshop on Constitutive Equations for Granular Non-Cohesive Soils, Cleveland, 22-24 July, pp. 101-104.

AMER, M. (1992) Aspects of Constitutive Modeling of Soils. M.S. Thesis, Rice University. UMI ProQuest AAC 1348951.

Constitutive models in soil mechanics are used to determine theoretical solutions to a host of geotechnical engineering problems such as pile-soil interaction, pile installation, short and long term stability, consolidation and foundation problems, etc. A fundamental component of the numerical formulation of the constitutive equations is the development of the elastoplastic tangent stiffness matrix. The numerical formulation of the elastoplastic matrix for a work hardening/softening material, as applicable to a general purpose finite element computer code, has been attempted by the author. The derived tangent stiffness matrix is symmetric for the associated flow rule (g = f) but it is non-symmetric for the non-associated flow rule (g not= f). All the components of the elastoplastic matrix for the Lade's model {11} are also given. A parametric study was carried out to determine the validity of the associated and the non-associated flow rules for various stress paths in the deviatoric plane. The results demonstrate the inability of the associated flow rule to capture the soil behavior, except at stress levels very close to the hydrostatic axis.

ANDERSON, R.D. (1970) "Foster Vibrator." Proceedings of the Conference of Design and Installatin of Pile Foundations and Cellular Structures, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, pp. 241-255

AOKI, N. (1997) The evaluation of the ultimate bearing capacity of driven piles by using increasing energy dynamic load tests. Doctorate Thesis -Sao Carlos School of Engineering -Sao Paulo University.

This thesis suggests how to evaluate the ultimate bearing capacity of driven piles by using dynamic load tests with increasing energy. The dynamic load test with constant energy blows only allows the determination of the mobilized static resistance (CASE and SMITH's model), by using the wave equation theory and the Pile Driving Analyzer. The application of increasing energy blows shows that this static resistance: a) increases with increasing energy and then becomes constant or; b) increases with increasing energy up to a peak resistance and thereafter first decreases and then becomes constant or, c) starts to increase with increasing energy, then remains constant and after some blows starts to increase again. It is shown that the rupture of the pile-soil system is characterized by the kinetic complementary energy reaching an upper limit when the impact mobilizes the maximum static pile capacity. All the energy or work done by damping forces, in excess of this maximum or peak situation, increases linearly with increasing energy.

AOI, M., NAKAJIMA, Y., and ASHIDA, S. (1988) "Characteristics of New Hydraulic Vibration Hammer." Research and Develoment, Kobe Steel Works.

ARONOV, A.M.. and GUDAKOV, Y.S. (1977) "EVALUATING THE BEARING CAPACITY OF DRIVEN PILES IN SANDY SOILS" Soil Mechanics And Foundation Engineering, Vol. 14 No. 1, February, pp 28-30. Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine: Dnepropetrovsk Inst of Railroad Engineering. Available from Engineering Societies Library 345 East 47th Street New York New York 10017

At the construction sites, the piles penetrated loose fine and medium-fine sand interstratified with localized sandy and clayey soils of shallow depth ranging from slightly plastic to fluid consistency, and were buried into more dense fine or medium-grained sands at 0.2-1 m. The density of the structure of the latter was established by dynamic probing and was characterized primarily as average, and at points, as dense. The groundwater horizon lies 1-4 m below the surface of the ground. 22 prismatic 30 X 30 and 35 X 35-cm piles, which were embedded to depths of from 5.8 to 12.9 m below the graded surface were tested.

AYRE, R.S. (1956) "Experiments on Vibratory Cutting of Soils." Highway Research Board Proceedings, Vol. 35, pp. 714-724.

AYRE, R.S., and KONDNER, R.L. (1958) "Cutting and Penetration of Soils Under Vibratory Loading: A Progress Report." Highway Research Board Proceedings, Vol. 37, pp. 506-516.

-B-

BAGROV, V.G., and GITMAN, D.M. (1990). Exact Solutions of Relativistic Wave Equations. Academic Publishers, ISBN 0-7923-0215-X.

BALTHAUS, H. (1988) "Numerical Modeling of Pile Driving Based on an Automatic CAPWAP Search Procedure." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 219-230. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

BAO, G. (1991) Microlocal Regularity Of An Inverse Problem For The Multidimensional Wave Equation. Ph.D. Thesis, Rice University. UMI ProQuest AAC 9135995.

Many physical processes such as reflection seismology, oil exploration, and ground-penetrating radar may be modeled as inverse problems for the multidimensional acoustic wave equation with point energy sources. The inverse problem is to identify the coefficients from the knowledge of boundary measurements of the solution. In this research we formulate an inverse problem for the wave equation with constant wave speed as a functional equation involving a forward map, which maps the coefficient (density) to the boundary value of the solution (excess pressure). We begin by examining some fundamental results in nonsmooth microlocal analysis. Rauch's lemma on the algebraic property of microlocal Sobolev spaces and a Beals-Reed linear propagation of singularities theorem are extended. We then present a trace regularity theorem which indicates that with microlocal restrictions against tangential oscillations in the coefficient, the boundary value is just as regular as the solution itself. The trace theorem also gives the first hint of the appropriate domain and range for the forward map. However, compared to the one dimensional case, much more overall smoothness has to be imposed to assure the optimal regularity of timelike traces. The Hadamard theory on progressing wave expansions is employed to study the fundamental solution to the linear acoustic wave equation. To establish the regularity of the solution, the solutions of transport equations are investigated by applying the Rauch-type results. The central result for the regularity of the inverse problem is an upper bound for the linearized forward map with nonsmooth reference density. In order to establish this regularity result, a dual technique is developed which dramatically reduces the difficulties of the inverse problem. Our method has the potential to obtain some regularity results even for the important nonsmooth reference velocity case. Similar analyses could result in a continuity result and a differentiability result for the forward map. These regularity properties are obviously crucial in the design and analysis of the algorithms for solving the inverse problem.

BARKAN, D.D. (1948) Dynamics of Bases and Foundations. State Press for Literature on Machine Construction, Moscow, Russia.

BARKAN, D.D. (1957) "Foundation Enginering and Drilling by the Vibration Method." Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering, Vol. II, London, pp. 3-7.

BARKAN, D.D. (1959) Vibrometod v Ctroitelstve (Vibratory Methods in Construction). Gosstroiizdat, Moscow, pp. 27-29.

BELOFF, W.R. (1987) "Vibratory Hammer Study Field Measurements." Report prepared by Goldberg-Zoino & Associates, Inc. for the Deep Foundations Institute. January 1987. File No. B-7946.

BERINGEN F.L., HOOYDONK van W.R. and SCHAAP L.H.J. Dynamic pile testing: An aid in analyzing driving behavior. H. Bredenberg (ed.), Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory on Piles, 1980, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 77-98.

BERNHARD, R.K. (1956) "Static and Dynamic Soil Compaction." Highway Research Board Proceedings, Vol. 31, pp. 5563-592

BERNHARD, R.K. (1968) "Pile-Soil Interactions During Vibro-Pile-Driving," Journal of Materials, ASTM, Vol. 3 No. 1, March, pp. 178-209.

BIELEFELD, M.W., and MIDDENDORP, P. (1992) "Improved Pile Driving Preduction for Impact Hammers and Vibratory Hammers, " Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 395-399.

BILLET, P., and SIFFERT, J.G. (1985) "Détermination Expérimentale du Frottement Latéral en Vibrofonçage." (Experimental Determination of Shaft Friction during Vibrodriving). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, pp. 89-92.

BILLET, P., and SIFFERT, J.G. (1989) "Soil-Sheet Piling Interaction in Vibro-Piling." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 115, No. 8, August, pp. 1085-1101.

BLEKHMAN, I.I. (1954) "Examining the Process of Vibratory Driving of Piles and Sheet Piles." Inzhener. Sbornik, USSR Academy of Sciences 19, pp. 55-64.

BOELLE, J.-L., and MEUNIER, J. (1988) "Three-Dimensional Radiation Around a Pile Toe in Stratified Media." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 467-476. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

BOGGS, E.W. (1954) "Vibrating Driver Successful for Sheetpile Cells," Civil Engineering, Vol 34, No. 4, April, pp. 58-60

BOSSARD, A. AND CORTÉ, J.-F. (1984) "Analysis of Pile Response to Impact Loading and Use of Static Soil-Pile Interaction Laws. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Runga-Kutta Method for finite difference analysis of piles.

BREDENBURG, H. and HOLM, G. (1985) "Evaluation of Pile Driving Criterion from CASE Measurements." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

BRIAUD, J.-L., and TUCKER, L. (1984) "Piles in sand: a method including residual stresses." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ISSN:0733-9410) v 110 p 1666-80 November

BRIAUD J.L. and TUCKER L.M. (1988a) Measured and predicted axial response of 98 piles. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 1988, Vol. 114, No. 9, 984-1001.

BRIAUD, J.-L., and TUCKER, L.M. (1988b) "Axial Response of Three Vibratory and Three Impact Driven H-Piles in Sand," Miscellaneous Paper GL-88-28, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

BRIAUD, J.-L., COYLE, H.M, and TUCKER, L.M. (1990) "Axial Response of Three Vibratory and Three Impact Driven H-Piles in Sand," Transportation Research Record N1277, pp 136-147. Washington: Transportation Research Board Publications Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington D.C. 20418.

Three H piles were impact driven in a medium dense sand deposit, load tested in compression, and then extracted. The same three piles were then vibro-driven at a different location and load tested in compression. The top load-top movement curves show that the vibro-driven piles have, on the average, the same ultimate capacity as the hammer-driven piles. These curves also show that at half the ultimate load, the movement of the vibro-driven piles is 2.5 times larger than the movement of the hammer-driven piles, on average. At half the ultimate load, however, the movement of the vibro-driven piles was only 0.25 in. Some of the piles were instrumented; this allowed researchers to obtain the load transfer curves. These curves showed that the vibro-driven piles carry much more load in friction and much less load in point resistance than the hammer-driven piles. This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1277, Modern Geotechnical Methods: Instrumentation and Vibratory Hammers 1990.

BROMS, B.B. (1966) "Design Of Laterally Loaded Piles" ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div, Volume 92, Number SM4, pp 75-76. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers. TRIS accession number: 095885.

In this discussion on the design of laterally loaded piles, the author comments on Kocsis' observation that the lateral deflection of a laterally-loaded pile at working loads was calculated by using a coefficient of subgrade reaction. The effect on the lateral deflections of various sized loads is discussed.

BROMS, B.B., FELLENIUS, B., FJELKNER, G., HELLMAN, L., and REHNMAN, S.E/ (1972) On The Bearing Capacity Of Driven Piles. Swedish Geotechnical Institute N N4 1972 Conf Paper 52 pp 49.

These Reprints And Preliminary Reports Cover The Following Subjects: 1. The Methods, Which Are Used At Present (1970) In Sweden, To Evaluate The Bearing Capacity Of End-bearing Precast Concrete Piles And To Determine The Soil Conditions At A Given Site, Are Reviewed. 2. Behaviour Of Piles E.g. Performance, Instrumentation And Interpretation Of Load Tests On Piles. Disturbamce Caused By The Driving Of Piles. Influence Of Pile Driving On Soil Compaction, Soil Movement And Bearing Capacity Of Adjacent Piles. Experience With Steel Piles In Sweden. Swedish Pile Splicing Systems. Stresses In Steel Piles During The Driving With Air Hammer. 3. An Experimental Study Is Presented On The Point Bearing Capacity Of Piles Driven Into Rock. The Test Results Are Compared With The Point Bearing Capacity Calculated By The Coulomb-mohr And The Griffith Failure Theories. 4. The Bearing Capacity Of Driven Precast Concrete And Timber Piles Has Been Investigated At Four Different Sites In Sweden. The Measured Critical Loads Are Compared With Calculated Values. 5. The Effects Of Repetitive Loads, Distance From Existing Open And Closed Cracks And The Size Of The Loaded Area Have Been Investigated In Order To Evaluate Some Of The Factors, Which Affect The Point Bearing Capacity Of End Bearing Piles Driven To Rock.

BROMS, B, FELLENIUS, B, and MASSARSCH, R (1973) Piles - General Reports, Basic Theories, Measurements And Case Record Of Buckling. Transport and Road Research Laboratory Report No. 53, 117 pp. R&D Rept. Stockholm S-11526, Sweden: Saertryck & Preliminaera Rapporter, Banergaton 16. IRRD 209710, TRIS accession number: 081081

This Publication Includes Six Papers Which Are Concerned With Piles. (1) Broms,b; Settlement Of Pile Groups; (2) Broms,b; Stability Of Flexible Structures (Piles And Pile Groups); (3) Fellenius,b; Buckling Of Piles Due To Lateral Soil Movements; (4) Fellenius,b; Bending Of Piles Determined By Inclinometer Measurements; (5) Fellenius,b; Precast Concrete Piles. State-of-art Report; (6) Massarsch,r; Die Anwendung Der Aehnlichkeitstheorie In Der Geotechnik. (Dimensional Analysis And Similarity Theory In Soil Mechanics). (1) Is A State-of-the Art Report Reviewing Methods Which Are Used At Present (1972) To Calculate The Settlement Of Pile Groups. Paper (2) Summarizes The 1972 State-of-the-art Of Laterally Loaded Piles And Paper (3) Is A Discussion With Reference To Paper (2) Dealing With The Consequence Of Surcharging The Ground Outside A Building Founded On Piles In Soft Soil. In Paper (4) The Changes In Inclination And The Bending Of Pile Segments Are Reported. Measurements Were Performed By Means Of The Swedish Geotechnical Institute Inclinometer Device. There Is A Summary In French. In Paper (5) A Presentation Is Given Of The High Quality Precast Concrete Pile Including Quality Requirements, Installation Procedure, Design And Loading Requirements, Inspection And Testing Methods And Case Histories. Paper (6) Is Concerned With Dimensional Analysis And Similarity Theory, Which Can Be Applied To Laterally Loaded Piles. The Paper Is In German With An English Summary . The Six Papers Are Reprints From:(1) Proc.specialty Conf. On Performance Of Earth And Earth-supported Structures, Purdue University 1972, Vol.3. (2-3) Proc.5th European Conf. On Soil Mech.&.found.engng., Madrid 1972,vol.2, (4) Canad. Geotechn.j. 9(1972):1. (5) Int. Conf. On Planning &. Design Of Tall Buildings, Found Design,lehigh University 1972, Vol. 1a-11. (6) 100 Jahre Hochschule Fur Bodenkultur In Wien. Bd 5, Teil 2, Wien 1972.

BUMP, V.L., KRAUSE, K.E., HUFT, D.L. and GNIRK, P.F. (1975) Development And Implementation Of An Instrumented Failing Drill For The Predetermination Of Pile Bearing Capacity South Dakota Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, Foundation & Geology Program, Report No: 605 (72), January. Pierre; South Dakota; South Dakota Department of Transportation, Division of Highways. Available from National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield Virginia 22161

The investigation involved the development and modification of an instrumentation system for the Failing drill for the measurement of the translatory motion of the drill rod during driving, with subsequent data acquisition at selected field sites; and, the development of improved data interpretation procedures on the basis of the static and dynamic features of the drill-rod/soil interaction, with subsequent application to the acquired field data. As a consequence of the high inertial forces of the hammer-drill rod impact for the Failing drill, the lead-wire/attachment arrangement and possibly the motion sensor itself are susceptible to damage during driving. However, the application of a velocity meter for monitoring full-scale pile motion should yield useful information and involve minimal inconvenience when utilized. Procedures for the conversion and interpretation of field data, involving a data transfer from a magnetic tape unit to a PDR-8E computer via analog to digital convertors, were successfully developed and tested. As regards the actual data interpretation procedures, the use of a dynamic rigid-pile model based on hammer-energy/pile-motion considerations is not advisable due to the lack of rigidity of the Failing drill system; however, the application of this theory to full-scale pile driving appears to hold considerably more promise. A dynamic elastic-pile model, based on one-dimensional wave motion principles, yielded quantitatively acceptable information for blow count and associated bearing capacity (drill-rod pull-out load) of the Failing drill rod. Finally, a static rigid-pile model, formulated on the basis of the psuedoplastic of soil, was utilized in conjunction with field data to determine a coefficient of sliding friction at the pile-soil interface of 0.12 to 0.17, and a zone-of-influence around a driven pile of two to six pile diameters for typical field soils.

-C-

CATOIRE, B. (1963) "Théorie Soviétique du Fonçage des Pieux," Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, Vol. 133, No. 1, January-February, pp. 63-68.

CHARLIE, W.A., OSMAN, M.A., and ALI, E.M. (1984) "Construction on expansive soils in Sudan." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (ISSN: 0733-9364) v 110 p 359-74 September

CHELLIS R.D. (1961) Pile Foundations. McGraw-Hill, New York.

CHOW, Y.K., and SMITH, I.M. (1984) "A numerical model for the analysis of pile drivability." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Finite Element method for analyzing piles.

CHUA, K.M., GARDNER, S., and LOWERY, L.L. (1987) "Wave Equation Analysis of a Vibratory Hammer-Driven Pile." Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Dallas, TX. OTC 5396, pp. 339-345.

CIVIL ENGINEERING (1961) "Sonic Pile Driver Shows Great Promise," Civil Engineering, Vol 31, No. 12, December 1961, p. 52.

CONSULTANT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT BRANCH AND OFFICE OF GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING (1994) "Site 1 Axial Load Test Report for Caltrans Indicator Pile Test Program on the I-880 Replacement Project", Service Cont. No. 59V149, April.

CORBETT, N.C. (1991) Initial Moving-boundary Value Problems Associated With The Wave Equation. MSc Thesis, University of Manitoba. UMI ProQuest AAC MM76642, ISBN 0-315-76642-5

The one-dimensional wave equation on a time-dependent domain is studied. Analytical solutions of an associated initial boundary value problem are sought. These solutions are derived by two distinct techniques, namely through an application of d'Alembert's solution and via the derivation of a series representation of these solutions.

CORTÉ, J.-F., and LEPERT, P. (1986) "Lateral Resistance During Driving and Dynamic Pile Testing." Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling, pp. 19-34. Paris: Éditions Technip.

CRORY, F.E. (1975) Bridge Foundations In Permafrost Areas: Moose And Spinach Creeks Fairbanks, Alaska. Report No. 266, 30 pp. Hannover, NH: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory; Department of the Army ; Hanover; New Hampshire; 03755.

Under a joint research project between the Alaska Department of Highways and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, cooperative field observations and tests were conducted during and following construction of the Moose and Spinach Creek bridges, Fairbanks, Alaska. Site investigations and bridge foundation designs of the Alaska Department of Highways, bridge pile installation data, and ground temperature conditions for a one-year period are presented. Two test piles and three anchor piles were installed in close proximity to the Moose Creek bridge and load settlement test were performed. The capacity of a sand-water slurried test pile was less than 10 tons, while that of an adjacent driven pile was about 45 tons. Greater capacities could have been easily achieved by driving the piles to bedrock rather than a specified elevation. To prevent frost heaving of the shallow piles at Spinach Creek an antiheaving soil-oil-wax mixture was employed to a depth of 10 feet. This report was co-sponsored by the Alaska Department of Highways and the Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

-D-

DANCE, D.R. and RIDER, D.J. (1987) "Resonant Pile Driving." Presented at the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Deep Foundations Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 14-16 October 1987.

DANGLA, P., and CORTÉ, J.-F. (1988) "Impedances for Pile Toe Reaction During Driving." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 186-196. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

DAVIE J.R. and BELL K.R. (1991) A pile relaxation case history. Proceedings of the International Conference "Fondations Profondes". Paris, France, 421-429.

DAVIS, R.O., and PHELAN, P.J. (1988) "Tests for Errors in Numerical Calculation of Pile Stress-Waves." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 377-382. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

Important information on impact of bars and numerical method accuracy (including conservation of energy).

DAVISSON, M.T. (1965) "Estimating Resonant Frequencies for Pile Driven with the BRD," October 19, 7 p.

DAVISSON, M.T. (1970) "BRD Vibratory Driving Formula." Foundation Facts, Vol. VI No. 1.

DEEKS, A.J. (1992) Numerical Analysis of Pile Driving Dynamics. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Western Australia.

DEEKS, A.J., and RANDOLPH, M.F. (1992) "Accuracy in Numerical Analysis of Pile Driving Dyanmics." Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, F.B.J. Barends (ed), pp.85-90.

DEEKS, A.J. and RANDOLPH, M.F. (1993) "Analytical Model of Hammer Impact for Pile Driving." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 17, pp. 279-302. London: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DEEKS, A.J., and RANDOLPH, M.F. (1994) "Axisymmetric time-domain transmitting boundaries." Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ISSN:0733-9399) v 120 p 25-42 January.

DENVER H. and SKOV R. (1988) Investigation of the stress-wave method by instrumented piles. B. Fellenius (ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1988, BiTech Publisher, Ottawa, Canada, 613-625.

DEWAN, S.M. (1993) Behavior Of A Pile Under Dynamic Loading. M.S. Thesis, California State University, Fullerton. UMI ProQuest AAC 1355546

An attempt is made to develop a new theoretical elastoplastic model for predicting the behavior of a pile in sand under dynamic loading. The model utilizes elastoplastic constitutive equations and 3-D finite element analysis. Much attention was given to develop a realistic model from fundamental considerations. An experimental verification of the model predicting the stress/strain behavior of a single pile in sand is presented. The model predicts the behavior of the pile satisfactorily.

DONDELINGER, M., and SOMMERFIELD, W.J. (1989) "The World in Steel Sheet Piling." Pile Buck, First August Issue 1989, pp. 6A-23A.

DOROSHKEVICH, N.M., and BOIM, U.P. "In Situ Study Of The Bearing Capacity Of Driven Piles In Expansive Soil" Asian Soil Mech & Fdn E Proc Vol 1, pp 81-83

Results Are Presented Of Experimental Study Of The Behavior Of Driven Reinforced Concrete Piles In A Soil Undergoing Swelling On Wetting. The Study Consisted Of In Situ Testing Of Piles And Test Plates Of Different Sizes In A Soil With Natural Moisture Content And After Wetting. Deformational And Strength Properties Of Expansive Khvalynsk Clays, And The Degree To Which These Properties Change On Wetting, Were Determined In The Laboratory With The Aid Of Oedometers And By The Ball-plate Method. It Is Shown That The Use Of Pile Foundations Reduces The Amount Of Rise Of A Building, Due To The Swelling Of Wetted Clays, And Ensures The Strength Of The Structure. On The Basis Of The Results, Specific Features Of Pile Behavior In Expansive Soil And The Variation Of The Bearing Capacity Of Piles On Wetting, Are Established. A New Design Method For Driven Piles In Expansive Soil Is Recommended, And Design Data Are Given For Khvalynsk Clays, Found In The Lower Stretches Of The Volga. These Data Include< Soil Resistance At The Lateral Surface Of The Pile And Under Its Tip, The Amount Of Its Rise And Values Of The Swelling Pressure Acting On It On Wetting.

-E-

EASTWOOD, W. (1959) "Model Investigations Concerned with Driving Piles by Vibration." Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, Vol. 50, No 584 (February), pp. 189-191.

EDGE, W.R. (1971) "Bridge Foundations In Soft Rock" Inst Hwy Engineers Journal, London, U.K., VOL. 18 NO. 12, December, pp 39-42.

Soft rocks are defined and grades of weathering listed. A section along a motorway cutting through keuper marl shows the variability of weathering with depth as indicated by moisture contents and s.p.t. Values. The movement of ground water at depth may be a cause of this. The difficulty of obtaining undisturbed cores is considered to be due primarily to the release of pore water pressure and it is suggested that this could form the basis of a better definition of soft rocks. Advantages of driven piles in keuper marl are stated, and bearing capacities, negative skin friction, and differential settlement are touched on.

EL-NAGGAR, M.H., and NOVAK, M. (1994) "Non-Linear Model for Dynamic Axial Pile Response." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 2, February 1994, pp. 308-329.

EL-NAGGAR, M.H., and NOVAK, M. (1994) "Nonlinear Axial Interaction in Pile Dynamics." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 4, April 1994, pp. 678-696.

ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD (1959) "Soviet 'Shakedown' Russian Reports Use of Vibrations to Drive Piles," Engineering News-Record, Vol. 163, No 23, June 11, p. 28

ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD (1961) "Sonics Drive a Pile 71 Ft. While Steam Drives Another 3 In.," Engineering News-Record, Vol 167, No 19, September 13, pp. 24-16.

ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD (1962) "Vibratory Piledriver is Fast," Engineering News-Record, Vol 169, No. 11, September 13, p. 49.

ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD (1964a) "Sonic Piledriver Takes Test as Fast, Soft-Ground Tunneler," Engineering News Record, Vol 172, No. 2, January 9, pp. 16-17.

ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD (1964b) "Sonic Driver Pulls for an Economical Job," Engineering News Record, Vol 173, No. 20, November 12, pp. 99, 102.

EROFEEV, L.V. (1966) Vibratsionnye I Vibroydarnye Mashiny Dlya Pogruzheniya Svai (Vibration and Impact-Vibration machines for driving piles). NIIinfstroidorkommunash, Moscow, p. 43.

EROFEEV, L.V. (1968) Issledovanie Dvykhmassnogo Vibromolota (Study of Dual Mass Vibrating Hammer) VNIIstroidormash Scientific Work #40, Moscow, pp. 43-53.

EROFEEV, L.V., CHENCHIKOVSKII, V.I. et. al (1969) USSR Author's Certificate 210,035, "Vibrating Hammer" Bulletin of Inventions #18.

EROFEEV, L.V., BAUMAN, A.V., CHENCHIKOVSKII, V.I. et. al. (1972) USSR Author's Certificate 338,950, "Vibrating Hammer for Driving Piles, Tubes, and Similar Elements". Bulletin of Inventions, #10

EROFEEV L.V., PETRUSHKIN, L.N., SIVSTEV, A.G., MORGAILO, V.S., and DITRIKH, Yu. V. (1974) USSR Author's Certificate 249,296, "Vibrating Hammer." Bulletin of Inventions #37.

EROFEEV, L.V., SMORODINOV, M.I., FEDOROV, B.S., VYAZOVIKII, V.N., and VILLUMSEN, V.V. (1985) Machines and Equipment for the Installation of Shallow and Deep Foundations. (In Russian) Second Edition, Mashinostrenie, Moscow, pp. 95-111.

EROFEEV, L.V. and TROYANOVSKAYA, G.A. (1986) Teoriya I Raschet Nagolovnikov Svainykh Molotov (Theory and Calculation of the Dual Mass Vibrating Hammer) VNIIstroidormash Scientific Work #7, Moscow, pp. 23-31.

EROFEEV, L.V., and WARRINGTON, D.C. (1991) "Development and Improvement of Impact-Vibration Pile Driving Equipment in the USSR." Pile Buck, Jupiter, FL, First May Issue, 1991

ESPINOZA, D. (1991) "Application of Wave Propagation Theory in Pile Driving Analysis." Internal Report AAE-646. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, December.

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FELLENIUS, B.H. (1984) "Geotechnically allowable stress for driven piles." Civil Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) (ISSN: 0885-7024) v 54 p 72-5 November

FELLENIUS B.H., RIKER R.E., O'BRIEN A.J. and TRACY G.R. (1989) Dynamic and static testing in soil exhibiting set-up. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 1989, Vol. 115, No. 7, 984-1001.

FIRMAGE, D.A. (1960) "Tests Of Steel Tubular Piles Driven Near Saigon River, Vietnam" Highway Research Board Bulletin, No 242, pp 28-42.

One of the foreign aid projects of the u.s. Government consists of building 30 kilometers of new highway from the city of Saigon north. This highway crosses many smaller streams and canals as well as the two large rivers, the Saigon and the dong nai. Core drillings showed quite A variation in subsoil characteristics. At the southern end of the highway, no rock was found within the limits of the drilling equipment. The subsoil consisted of varying depths of organic muck over laying strata of clay and sand. The northern end of the highway showed a good grade of rock at depths of less than 100 feet. The subsoil condition on the southern end dictated the use of piles for all structures. On the northern end, point-bearing piles of steel rolled sections were used. Piles of high capacity were achieved for the southern end by the use of frictional displacement piles calling for steel tubular piles of some type. A 20-in. Tubular pipe pile was selected for the substructure of prestressed concrete beam bridges. A continuous plate girder was the design selected for the major 880-ft. Crossing of the Saigon river. This bridge was to incorporate 80-ft. Prestressed beam approach spans on pile trestle bents. Piles were driven from a floating barge with a mckiernan-terry C-5 double acting steam hammer. Test piles were driven near each bank of the Saigon river with the idea of using a 20-in. Tubular pile on the approach spans and a fluted pile under the main piers. One pile of each type was driven on both the north and south banks. After the piles were driven, they were cut off at the required elevation and left to set several days and then filled with concrete. Load tests were conducted on these piles. The following general conclusions were made from these tests: (1) large load capacity can be obtained from large diameter steel pipe piles driven deeply into sedimentary deposits of clay and sand, (2) the predicted capacity from the dynamic formula was quite low as compared to the actual load test (3) the modified Engineering News-record formula will give too small a factor of safety for small penetrations of piles of this size, and (4) load tests should always be conducted when using piles of this size driven into clay and sand deposits.

FLOYD, D., and ALDINGER, P.B. (1990) "Load Testing of Steel Sheet Piling Driven with a Vibratory Hammer," Presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 7-11 January 1990.

FOEKEN van R.J., DANIELS B. and MIDDENDORP P. (1996) An improved method for the real time calculation of soil resistance during driving. F. Townsend, M. Hussein & M. McVay (eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1996, Orlando, University of Florida, 1132-1143.

FOUNDATION PUBLICATIONS LIMITED (1974) "Combined Bored And Driven Piles Used At Maidstone." Ground Engineering, Vol. 7 No. 6 Nov 1974 pp 48-49.

This article gives a brief account of the adaptation of a standard driven cast-in-situ piling technique to combine it with the lined auger boring method, in order to overcome the wet ground conditions on a congested site at Maidstone, Kent. The system used was developed for use where water-bearing granular soils overlie a softer stratum unsuitable for load-bearing and in turn is underlain by water-bearing granular strata which will give a high carrying capacity using a pile with an enlarged base. The dense upper granular layer is prebored using a rotary auger and a lining casing sunk with the aid of a vibrator through the dense strata. The material inside the casing is removed with the auger rig and preboring continued to about 600mm above the water-bearing granular stratum. A piling rig is used to pitch a steel piling tube in the hole, the bottom being closed to prevent soft material contaminating the driving plug of concrete placed at the base of the tube. A drop hammer drives plug and tube to the required depth. The plug is then expelled and an enlarged base formed by forcing successive charges of concrete into the surrounding stratum by means of a drop hammer. Details are given of the maidstone contract including the equipment used.

FOX E.N. (1932) Stresses phenomena occurring in pile driving. Engineering, 1932, September, 263-265.

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GANGOPADHYAY, C. R. (1972) The Mode Of Consolidation Initiated By Pile Driving In A Varved Clay. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign, 124 pp. UMI ProQuest AAC 6202912.

GARDNER, S. (1987) "Analysis of Vibratory Driven Pile." Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory Technical Note N-1779, Port Hueneme, CA.

GARRETT, R.E. (1988) "New Vibratory Hammer Proves Ideal for Aluminium Sheeting." Pile Buck, Jupiter, FL, Second March Issue 1988, pp. 10-14.

GEFFEN, S.A. and AMIR, J.M. "Effect Of Construction Procedure On Load-carrying Behavior Of Single Piles And Piers." Fourth Asian Regional Conf Proc, Conf Paper pp 263-8

From Measurements Taken At Four Sites, It Became Possible To Compare The Performance Of Five Types Of Foundations: Benoto Concrete Piles, Precast Concrete Driven Piles, Piles Bored And Cast With The Use Of Casing, Piles Bored And Cast With The Use Of Bentonite And Excavated Concrete Piers, Lined With Concrete Blocks. Steel Rods, Freely Supported Within The Piles, Enabled Settlement Readings At Various Depths For All Loading Stages. Deformations Were Found, From Which The Load Distribution Along The Pile Was Computed. By This Method The Total Applied Load Was Separated Into Friction And End-bearing. In All Cases Reported, The Performance Of Piles And Piers Was Dominated By Their Ability To Mobilize Friction.

GHAHARMANI, A. (1967) "Vibratory Pile Driving Ultimate Penetration and Bearing Capacity," Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

GLANVILLE, W.H., GRIME, G., FOX, E.N, AND DAVIES, W.W. (1938) "An Investigation of the Stresses in Reinforced Concrete Piles During Driving." Department Sci. Ind. Research, British Building Research Board Technical Paper No. 20.

GOBLE G.G., LIKINS G.E. and RAUSCHE F. (1975) Bearing capacity of piles from dynamic measurements, Final Report, Department of Civil Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 1975, Cleveland, Ohio.

GOBLE G.G. and RAUSCHE F.(1976) Wave Program Documentation. National Information Service, Washington, D.C., 1976.

GOBLE G.G., RAUSCHE F., and LIKINS G. (1980) The analysis of pile driving - A state-of-the-art. Bredenberg H. (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory on Piles, 1980, Stockholm, A.A. Balkema, 131-161.

GOBLE, G.G., and HERY, P. (1984) "Influence of residual forces on pile drivability." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

GOBLE, G.G., and RAUSCHE, F. (1986) "Wave Equation Analysis of Pile Foundations, WEAP86 Program." Federal Highway Administration Report Contract DTFH61-84-C-00100. Washington: Federal Highway Administration.

GOLOVACHEV, A.S. (1964) Puti Povysheniya Effektivnocti Cvainykh Vibropogruzhatelei v Transportnom Ctroitelstve (Ways of increasing the efficiency of vibration pile drivers in transport construction). TsINTIAM OS-U, pp. 63-65.

GONCHAREVICH, I.F., and FROLOV, K.V. (1981) Theory of Vibratory Technology. (In Russian; English translation available) Nauka, Moscow.

GREEN MOUNTAINEEER (1963) "Guild Driver Sonically at Montpelier," Green Mountaineer, New England Telephon and Telegraph Company, October, p. 2.

GRIGGS, JR., F.E. (1967) "The Pile Problem with Special Emphasis on the Vibratory Placement Technique." Doctoral Engineering Thesis, Renssalear Polytechinic Institute, Order No. 68-823, 113p.

GRIGORJAN, A.A., and MAMONOV, V.M. (1969) "Determination Of The Bearing Capacity Of Friction Piles Driven In Soils Of First Degree Of Moisture Sensibility" (In Russian) Akademiai Kiado, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Acta Technica, Vol 64, No 1/2, pp. 113-122

Static Tests Were Run After Soil Satuation On 12 Driven Piles 4-7m. Long In Loess. The Author Established Deformations And Dry Density Variation Of Soil Around The Piles By Setting Marks, Excavating And Sampling. Empirical Formula Was Obtained For The Radius Of The Hemispherical Compacted Zone Under The Toe. Load On Compacted Zone Was Determined By Simplified Elastic Formulas And Was Equated To The Pressure Corresponding To The Beginning Of Moistening Deformation. This Gave The Limit Pressure On Toe. Lateral Friction Bearing Was Determined Using Laternal Pressure Coefficient Into The Moist Loess, As Outlined By The Author In A Previous Work (1960). Calculations Agreed With Tests.

GRL and ASSOCIATES, INC. (1997) GRLWEAP - Wave Equation Analysis of Pile Driving, Manual. Cleveland, Ohio, 1997.

GRYNKEWISZ, F.M., BELOFF, W.R., and KIRK, T. (1991) "A Case Study Supporting The Need For A Rational Method For Design And Installation Of Vibratory Driven Piles." Presented at the Sixteenth Annual Members' Conference of the Deep Foundations Institute, Chicago, IL, 7-9 October 1991.

GUMENSKII, B.M., and KOMAROV, N.S. (1959) Vibroburenie Gruntov (Soil Drilling By Vibration). Ministry of Municipal Services of the RSFSR, Moscow.

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HANNIGAN, P.J. (1984) "Large Quake Development During Driving of Low Displacement Piles." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

HANNIGAN P.J. (1990) Dynamic monitoring and analysis of pile foundation installations. DFI Short Course Text, 1990.

HANNIGAN P.J., GOBLE G.G., THENDEAN G., LIKINS G.E. and RAUSCHE F. (1996) Design and construction of driven pile foundations. Workshop manual, Publication No. FHWA-HI-97-014, 1996.

HANSEN, B., and DENVER, H. (1980) "Wave equation analysis of a pile -- An analytic model." Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

HEJAZI, H.A. (1963) "The Influence of Forced Longitudinal Vibration on Rods Penetrating Soils," Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. UMI ProQuest AAC 6401264.

HEJAZI, A. (1983) Application Of Wave Equations To Pile Driving Analyses. D. Eng. Thesis, Louisiana Tech University. UMI AAC 8312261.

The analysis completed in this dissertation was undertaken to provide a comprehensive understanding of the behavior of piles during and after driving by means of dynamic analysis. Two computer based analysis programs were selected for this study\; TTI, developed by the Texas Transportation Institute, and "WEAP", Wave Equation Analysis for Pile Driving, developed by Goble and Associates, Incorporated. The approach used in this evaluation consisted of the comparisons of the analytical results obtained from the TTI and WEAP programs with referee data obtained from actual field pile tests. A total number of 30 test piles from different parishes within the State of Louisiana were selected for inclusion in this study. In addition to direct comparisons of the computer results with field results, sensitivity analyses were completed for the two computer programs in these two areas: (1) Comparison of penetration rate and pile capacity between two analysis programs for a condition matched to actual pile test data\; and (2) Comparison of penetration rate and pile capacity for the two programs over a variety of input parameters, including stiffness (capblock), weight of helmet, coefficient of restitution, soil quake, and cross-sectional area of the pile. The results of this analysis indicate that the margin of safety predicted by the two different programs was considerably higher than the factor of safety assumed by the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LA DOTD). Because of the modeling of the hammer, the TTI program was found to be unreliable for diesel hammers. In all cases, TTI showed significantly higher driving stresses. The driving stresses obtained from WEAP were more realistic. For all practical purposes, TTI is recommended to be used for piles driven by air steam hammers and WEAP for those driven by diesel hammers. From the sensitivity analysis, it was found that the stiffness of the capblock had no significant effect, and sufficient cushioning material with a low coefficient of restitution substantially decreased the driving stresses. It was also found that for each pile driving operation there was an optimal helmet weight, which led to the easiest driveability.

HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD (1960) "Soil and Foundation Engineering in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, " Highway Research Board, Special Report 60 pp. 16, 17, 21, 41-43, 72-79.

HILL, H.T. (1966) "Frictional Resistance in Vibratory Pile Driving." Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, Order Number 67-5727, 127p.

HILL, H.T., and SCHMID, W.E. (1967) "A Rational Dynamic Equation for Vibro-Driven Friction Piles in Sand." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wave Propagation and Dynamic Properties of Earth Materials, 23-25 August, New Mexico, pp. 349-359.

HIRSCH, T.J., CARR, L. and LOWERY, L.L., Jr. (1976) "Pile Driving Analysis - Wave Equation User's Manual, TTI Program." Federal Highway Administration Project FWHA-IP-76-13 (4 vols.) Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield Virginia 22161.

The report provides a listing, flow chart, and other pertinent information regarding the computer program for analyzing driven piles by the wave equation. The program is written in the basic FORTRAN language and has been especially programmed to easily convert to most computers having FORTRAN capability. See also Volume 2, PB-261 901. Also available in set of 4 reports PC E08, PB-261 899-SET.

HOLEYMAN, A.E. (1985) "Dynamic Non-Linear Skin Friction of Piles." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

HOLEYMAN, A.E. (1985) "Static Versus Dynamic Pile Bearing Capacity (Discussion to Session 4)" Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Tokyo: Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

HOLEYMAN, A.E. (1988) "Modeling of Dynamic Behaviour at the Pile Base." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 174-185. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

HOLEYMAN A.E. (1992) Keynote lecture: Technology of pile dynamic testing. F. Barends (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1992, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 195-215.

HOLLOWAY D.M., CLOUGH G.W. and VESIC A.S. (1979) A rational procedure for evaluating the behavior of impact-driven piles. Special Technical Publication 670, ASTM, 1979, 335-357.

HUCK, R.W., and HALL, J.R. (1971) "Resonant Driving in Permafrost." Foundation Facts, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 54-57.

HUNT S.W. and BAKER C.N. (1988) Use of stress-wave measurements to evaluate piles in high set-up conditions. B. Fellenius (ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1988, BiTech Publisher, Ottawa, 689-705.

HUSEIN, A. I.(1992) Determination Of Wave Equation Soil-pile Interaction Model Parameters Using In Situ Testing Techniques. Ph.D. Thesis, The University Of Akron. UMI ProQuest AAC 9305762

Recently, the wave equation approach, involving both wave equation based computer simulations (e.g., WEAP87 computer program) and the dynamic measurement of high strain test (HST) data, has become an accepted method for establishing pile driving criterion and for achieving economical pile installation. However, the accuracy of wave equation simulations of the pile driving process depends upon the accuracy of the site-specific soil-pile interaction model parameters. The three different in situ testing techniques have been investigated in this research were the dynamic small-rod probing test, the dynamic cone penetration test, and the inverse-search technique in connection with Standard Penetration Test (SPT). The general approach in developing and evaluating these three in situ testing techniques involved: (i) developing theories for data reduction procedures, (ii) conducting a field testing program to gather pertinent HST data of pile driving for subsequent CAPWAPC signal match analysis, (iii) conducting the selected in situ tests at the pile test sites, and (iv) correlating the data reduction theories with the CAPWAPC computer analysis results. The dynamic cone penetration test (DCPT) has been found to be the most suitable method for in situ determination of the soil-pile model parameters. A new data reduction theory has been derived from the theory of one-dimensional projectile penetration, coupled with the simplifications made possible by the WEAP87 numerical simulation results. The developed data reduction theory provided the soil-pile model parameters, and the strength- and strain-dependent Young's modulus of the soil. Favorable comparisons between the DCPT theory predicted soil constants and field data provided verification of the developed theory. In addition to the major contribution made to the state-of-the-art of the dynamic cone penetration testing, an additional contribution was the development of an improved dynamic formulation which can be used effectively as a replacement for the existing dynamic energy formulae approach for pile driving control. Finally, for the first time, a theoretical transfer function has been derived for the determination of the dynamic soil-pile model parameters.

HUNT, H.W. (1978) "Current Practice In Design And Installation Of Driven Piles." Transportation Research Record N665, pp 200-208. Washington: Transportation Research Board Publications Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington D.C. 20418

Tests have proved that H-piles can dependably carry heavier loads than usually are assigned to them. Concrete and timber piles are being loaded heavier. Prestressed concrete piles benefit from improved splicers. Gaining in use are H-pile extensions for precast. The H end, with cast steel protection, can assure penetration into compact material; it can prevent sliding of sharply battered piles or piles driven on steeply sloping rock; it provides protection to the vulnerable end of a precast pile. An import from Europe is an interlocking deep-web H that can be used with sheet piles for cofferdams or a strong wall. Improved mandrels have increased use of corrugated shell piles. The wave equation is increasingly used for determination of driving stresses and selection of the optimum combination of pile and hammer. Dynamic measurement gives instant pile capacity information at minimum cost. More adequate soils investigation and foundation planning can reduce overall cost. /Author/ This paper appeared in Transportation Research Record No. 665, Bridge Engineering, Volume 2. Proceeding of a conference conducted by the Transportation Research Board, September 25-27, 1978.

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IARROBINO, A.V. (1962) "Placing Piles by Vibration." Military Engineer, Vol. 54, No. 357, January-February 1962, pp. 7-8.

ISSACS, D.V. (1931) "Reinforced Concrete Pile Formula." Transactions of the Institute Engineers Australia, Vol. XII, pp. 305-323.

First mention of the need for wave equation analysis.

IWANOWSKI, T., and FISCHER, H.-C. (1984) "Alternative methods to compute stress waves in piles when using prestressed disc spring cap." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Infinite pile method -- pile impedance method.

IWASKI, T., TATSUKA, F., and TAKAGI, Y. (1978) "Shear Moduli of Sands under Cyclic Torsional Shear Loading." Soils and Foundations, Vol. 18, No. 1, March, pp. 39-56.

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JARZEBOWSKI, A., and MROZ, Z. (1987) "A constitutive model for sands and its application to monotonic and cyclic loadings." Proceedings of the International Workshop on Constitutive Equations for Granular Non-Cohesive Soils," Cleveland, 22-24 Jully, pp. 307-323.

JENSEN, H.A. (1990) Dynamic Response Of Structures With Uncertain Parameters. Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology. UMI ProQuest AAC 9009380.

This thesis presents a technique for obtaining the response of linear structural systems with parameter uncertainties subjected to either deterministic or random excitation. The parameter uncertainties are modeled as random variables or random fields, and are assumed to be time-independent. The new method is an extension of the deterministic finite element method to the space of random functions. First, the general formulation of the method is developed, in the case where the excitation is deterministic in time. Next, the application of this formulation to systems satisfying the one-dimensional wave equation with uncertainty in their physical properties is described. A particular physical conceptualization of this equation is chosen for study, and some engineering applications are discussed in both an earthquake ground motion and a structural context. Finally, the formulation of the new method is extended to include cases where the excitation is random in time. Application of this formulation to the random response of a primary-secondary system is described. It is found that parameter uncertainties can have a strong effect on the system response characteristics.

JEYAPALAN, J.K. (1986) "Axial Capacity of Vibro-driven Piles," Unpublished Internal Report, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

JI, F. (1993) Boundary Element Analysis Of Dynamic Poroelastic Soil-structure Interaction Problems (Shell Theory). Ph. D. Thesis, University Of Colorado At Boulder. UMI ProQuest AAC 9320436.

The purpose of this study is to develop a rigorous analytical framework for the dynamic analysis of deep foundations in a fluid-filled porous medium. To begin, a method of potentials is first introduced for the application of Biot's dynamic theory for a homogeneous, isotropic, linear poroelastic half-space. With the aid of Hankel transforms, general fundamental solutions corresponding to arbitrarily distributed, time-harmonic, finite, buried body force field and fluid dilatation sources are shown to be admit as integral representations. With these tools which are fundamental to the boundary element method, attention is then focused on the solution of boundary value problems associated with the cases of embedded hollow and solid piles under dynamic axial loads. Modelled as an elastic shell, the hollow-pile problem for time-harmonic axisymmetric loads is examined. By virtue of a set of pseudo-static ring-load Green's functions for the cylindrical foundation and a group of dynamic fundamental solutions for the embedding poroelastic half-space, it is shown that the shell-medium interaction problem is reducible to a set of singular boundary integral equations on the resultant interfacial contact load, pore pressure and pore pressure derivative distributions. Through a mathematical analysis of an auxiliary pair of Cauchy integral equations, the singularities of the vertical and radial load-transfers are rendered explicit, and the results are incorporated into a computational boundary integral equation procedure. Parallel to the development, a mathematical treatment is also presented, with the aid of a high-order structural mechanics theory, for the analysis of a partially embedded elastic rod with radial deformation. Through the analysis, a rigorous treatment of the singular behavior of the contact stresses and the issue of non-uniqueness of the traction components at the corner point is shown to be possible. To provide further physical insights for the soil-structure interaction problems, a comprehensive parametric study is performed. Typical results for the dynamic contact load distributions, pore water pressures, displacements, and complex compliance functions are included as illustrations. In addition to furnishing quantities of direct geotechnical and structural engineering interest, this treatment is apt to be useful as a foundation for further rigorous as well as approximate developments for various related physical problems and boundary element method.

JONES, J.P., and NEWCOMB, F.M. (1963) An Introduction to Pile Driving. Stanford University Construction Institute, Technical Report 23, June 1963.

JONKER, G. (1987) "Vibratory Pile Driving Hammers for Pile Installations and Soil Improvement Projects." Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Dallas, TX. OTC 5422, pp. 549-560.

JONKER, G., and MIDDENDORP, P. (1988) "Subsea Installations Using Vibratory Piling Hammers." Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Offshore Technolgy Conference, Houston, TX, 2-5 May 1994, pp. 291-304.

JOHNSON, L.D. (1992) "Kwajalein Drydock Pile Foundation Analysis." Miscellaneous Paper GL-92-23. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS

JOHNSON, L.D., OKADA, O.T., PIERCE, K.A., and HOLLOWAY, D.M. (1993) "Concrete Piles Driven in a Coral Sand." Presented at the Eighteenth Annual Members Conference of the Deep Foundations Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 18-20 October 1993.

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KAISER, F.X., JR, COYLE, H.M., MILBERGER, L.J., and BARTOSKEWITZ, R.E. (1975) The Measurement Of Pile Driving Forces And Its Application To Wave Equation Analysis Of Piles. Texas Transportation Institute Report TTI-2-5-195-1F September. College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 Available from National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield Virginia 22161

A new, dynamic peak force readout device was tested and found to be accurate, reliable, and easily used with a proposed new method of analysis of driven piles. Model pile, pile stub in a pendulum loading facility, and actual field pile driving tests are described. The data from the tests are presented for the new device and for a standard carrier amplified system which was also used during the tests. Comparison of the output data shows that the new device measures peak force values which are within 4% of the values obtained with the standard carried amplifier system. Tests conducted under various temperature conditions demonstrate the stability of the new device. The traditional wave equation technique of pile driving analysis is very briefly introduced and a proposed standard method of analysis using measured peak force is presented in a step-by-step manner. A sample problem is presented using the proposed standard method and data obtained from the new device field-evaluation tests. The sample problem is used to demonstrate the use of the new device in conjunction with the proposed method of analysis. Good agreement is indicated between the proposed standard method and the use of measured force in the pile with time when predicting total resistance at the time of driving. Studies of hammer simulation and parameter variations, and test results of a proposed aluminum force transducer are appended. Research preformed in cooperation with FHWA and DOT.

KEE, R, and CLAPHAM, H.G. (1971) "An Empirical Method Of Foundation Design In Chalk." Civil Eng & Public Works Review (UK), September, Vol 66, No 782, P 981, 983, 985.

This article introduces a modified relationship between an 'equivalent' elastic modulus and the standard penetration test value which can be used in conjunction with the elastic theory to estimate the bearing capacity and settlement relationship for a foundation. The results of 11 pile loading tests have been analyzed using the method and an approximate linear relationship has been obtained between mobilized working shaft friction and standard penetration N values. The relationship appears to be valid for both driven and bored piles. /cepwr/

KHAN, M.N. (1993) Idealization Of Pile To Pile-cap Connection With Respect To Lateral Loads (Concrete Piles). Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign. 256 pp. UMI ProQuest AAC 9329082.

This thesis is concerned with study of behavior of pile to pile-cap connection with respect to lateral loads. In this connection prestressed precast concrete piles and reinforced concrete pile caps were given particular attention. General parameters for the design of pile-pile cap connection are discussed with reference to ACI Code and New Zealand Code. Seismic design philosophies for prestressed concrete pile and reinforced concrete pile cap connections are given in the summary form. A review of the previous works concerning pile-pile cap connections is given along with comments. The properties of main materials, ie, concrete and steel are discussed, elaborating their physical models. Analytical methods for analysis are discussed with a short review of the analytical as well as mathematical models for concrete and steel. Reinforced concrete models are discussed for the finite element method of analysis. Seismic design methodology for bridge piers is discussed in order to develop understandings of the possible origins and effects of the lateral loads on the pile-pile cap connections. Design of reinforced concrete pile cap is discussed along with assumptions, design steps and explanatory examples according to ACI Code as well as New Zealand Code. Six pile-pile cap connections are modelled incorporating the improved material properties as well as detailing of reinforcement. The analysis of these models is carried out by the finite element method, using 'ABAQUS' program, and the results are compared with the experimental results. The proposed models have shown satisfactory results in most of the areas. There are valuable indications of requirements for further research in some areas. Finally, a number of recommendations are offered on the basis of the observations made and conclusions drawn during this study. Recommendations are also made for areas demanding further research for better understanding of the behavior of pile-pile cap connections. Comments are offered about "ABAQUS" for the aspects which demand further elaboration for better understanding and convenient application of the program.

KENSETSU KIKAI CHOSA CO., LTD. (1975) "The Dream Island: A Report on Vibration Pile Driving of Junction Steel Tube at the Tokyo Waste Disposal Area." Kensetsu Kikai Chosa Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.

KENSETSU KIKAI CHOSA CO., LTD. "Report on Study of Piles Driven by Vibratory Hammer." Kensetsu Kikai Chosa Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.

KONDNER, R.L., and EDWARDS (1960) "The Static and Vibratory Cutting and Penetration of Soils." Highway Research Board Proceedings, Vol. 39, pp. 583-604.

KRÄMER, W. (1967) "Untersuchungen über den Einsatz ver Vibrationsrammung bei Rammelementen des städtischen Tiefbaues," Technische Mitteilungen Krupp, Werksberichte, Vol 25, No. 1-2, April, pp. 39-50.

KUEHN, H. (1994) "Signal tranfer increases operability." World Oil (ISSN:0043-8790) v 215 p 86+ July.

Pile drivers/Control, Submersibles/Remote control, Offshore drilling structures/Installation, Offshore petroleum production

KÜMMEL, F. (1984) "The Kümmel Method for Calculation of Impact Forces in Piles." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Capacity calculation using wave theory without finite difference solution.

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LARNACH, W.J., and AL-SHAWAF, N.A. (1972) "The Vibratory Driving of Piles in Sand." Ground Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 22-24.

LE HOUDEC, D., and YOTTE, S. (1986) "Transmission in the Ground of Vibrations Created by Vibratory Driving of a Circular Pile." (in French) Mechanique-Materiaux-Electricité, No. 417, July-October, pp. 48-51.

LEE, C. Y., and POULOS, H. G. (1988) "Effective stress dependence of pile shaft capacity in calcareous sand." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ISSN:0733-9410) v 114 p 1189-93 October

LEE, S. L., CHOW, Y. K., and KARUNARATNE, G. P. (1988) "Rational wave equation model for pile-driving analysis." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ISSN:0733-9410) v 114 March.

LEE W., LEE I.M., YOON S.J., CHOI Y.J. and KWON L.H. (1996) Bearing capacity evaluation of the soil-cement injected pile using CAPWAP. F. Townsend, M. Hussein & M. McVay (eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1996, Orlando, University of Florida, 409-419.

LEVACHER, D.R., and SIFFERT, J.G. (1984) "A finite difference method applied to behaviour of frictional driven piles." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

LEVACHER, D.R. (1986) "On the accuracy and the devleopment of a pile driving computer program." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Numerical Methods in Offshore Piling. Paris: Éditions Technip.

Finite Difference Method, Crank-Nicholson Method.

LIANG, M.T., RODGER, A.A., and REID, S.R. (1988) "A Study of the Case-Western System for Dynamic Measurement of Pile Bearing Capacity." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 441-454. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

Method of Images.

LIANG, R.Y., and HUSEIN, A.I. (1994) "Simplified dynamic method for pile-driving control." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ISSN:0733-9410) v 119 p 694-713 April.

LIANG R.Y. and ZHOU J. (1997) Probability Method Applied to Dynamic Pile-Driving Control. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 1997, Vol. 123, No. 2, 137-144.

LIGTERINK, A., VAN ZANDWIJK, C., and MIDDENDORP, P. (1990) "Accurate Vertical Pile Installation by Using a Hydraulic Vibratory Hammer on the Arboath Project." Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Offshore Technology Conference. Offshore Technology Conference, Dallas, TX, pp. 315-326.

LIKINS, G., RAUSCHE, F., MORRISON, M., and RAINES, R. (1992) "Evaluation of Measurements for Vibratory Hammers." Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the Application of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 433-436.

LIKINS G., RAUSCHE F., THENDEAN G. and SVINKIN M. (1996) CAPWAP correlation studies. F. Townsend, M. Hussein & M. McVay (eds.), Proceeding of the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1996, Orlando, University of Florida, 447-464.

LIU C., LIN Q., and SHI F. Determining the bearing capacity of large-diameter bored cast-in-situ piles by high-strain dynamic pile testing. (1996) F. Townsend, M. Hussein & M. McVay (eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Orlando, University of Florida, 797-804.

LOWERY, L.L, HIRSCH, T.J., EDWARDS, T.C., COYLE, H.M. and SAMSON, C.H. (1969). Pile Driving Analysis -- State of the Art. Research Report 33-13. College Station: Texas Transportation Insititute.

LUKOMSKII, S.I. (1959) Issledovanie Rezhimov Raboty Vibromolotov (Study of the Operatinal Modes of vibration Hammers). VNIIstroidormash Works #24, Moscow, pp. 3-39.

LUKOMSKII, S.I. (1960) Raschet Pruzhin Vibromolotov (Calculating the Springs of Vibrating Hammers). Stroitelnoe I Dorozhnoe Mashinostroenie, #9, pp. 39-41.

LYNWANDER, P. (1983) Gear Drive Systems. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

LYSMER, J. (1965) Vertical Motion of Rigid Footings. Contract Report No. 3-115, Sponsored by Defense Atomic Support Agency NWER Subtask 13. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station.

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MAKRIS, N., MICHAELIDES, O., and GAZETAS, G. (1995) "Impedance function of piles in inhomogeneous media" (discussion of September 1993 article) Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ISSN:0733-9410) v 121 p 234-6 February

MAO, Y.S. (1957) Discussion, Session 6, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering, Vol. III, London, pp. 192-193.

MAO, Y.S. (1958) "The Yangtze River Bridge at Hankow, China," Civil Engineering, Vol 28, No. 12, December, pp. 54-57.

MASSARSCH, K. R. (1983) "Vibration Problems in Soft Soils." Presented at the Symposium of Recent Developments in Laboratory and Field Testing and Analysis of Geotechnical Problems, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1983.

MASSARSCH, K. R. (1992) "Static and Dynamic Soil Displacements Caused by Pile Driving." Keynote Lecture, Fourth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, The Hague, The Netherlands, 21-24 September 1992.

MCCURDY, J.C. (1993) Eighteenth Century Solutions To The Wave Equation And The Modern Method Of Finding A Fourier Series Solution. M.S. Thesis, Texas Woman's University. UMI ProQuest AAC 1356255.

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the one dimensional wave equation. The history of the one dimensional wave equation as it was developed and solved in the eighteenth century will be examined. Much of the mathematics used to obtain and verify Jean d'Alembert's solution will be presented. Contributions made by John Bernoulli, Leonard Euler, and Daniel Bernoulli will also be reviewed. Next, a presentation of the modern method of obtaining a Fourier series solution to the wave equation will be given. This will include a brief look at the physical properties of the vibrating string which determine the wave equation. Finally, four problems which can be solved by the modern method of obtaining a Fourier series solution will be examined. The problems will differ in given boundary conditions, which makes each a unique challenge to solve.

MEDVEDEV, S.R. (1953) "The Use of Vibrators for Driving Steel Sheet Piling," Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, Vol. 48, No. 559, January, pp. 61, 62.

MEUNIER J., BRUCY F. and PAQUET J. (1991) Driving instrumentation as a means of evaluating pile performance application to four experimental piles in sands. Proceedings of the International Conference on Deep Foundations, 1991, ENPC, Paris, March.

MEYERHOF, G.G., and SASTRY, V.V. (1978) "Bearing Capacity Of Piles In Layered Soils. Part 1. Clay Overlying Sand" Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, May, pp 171-182. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada.

The paper summarizes investigations on jacked and driven piles in non-uniform soils consisting of clay and sand. Part 1 deals with the bearing capacity of piles penetrating through clay and sand layers. Preliminary tests on small model piles have been undertaken to study the effects on the point resistance of parameters such as the strength and thickness of a clay stratum, the strength ratio of soils in the two layers and the geometry of the layers. Based on these results, tests on a 76 mm diameter instrumented steel pile and a 36 mm diameter static cone penetrometer have been carried out for selected combinations of the variables involved. The test results are analysed to determine the influence of clay thickness and strength on the point resistance of piles in sand, expressed by a non-dimensional clay strength factor a, and parameters influencing a are discussed. The effect of layering on the shaft friction in sand and the radial stresses along the pile length are studied. The efficiency of small groups of model piles in layered soils is obtained. Field data are analysed, including scale effects, and simple design rules are suggested to estimate the bearing capacity of piles in layered soils.

MEYNARD, A., AND CORTÉ, J.-F. (1984) "Experimental Study of Lateral Resistance During Driving." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

MESECK, H. (1985) "Application of a Wave Equation Programma to Establish the Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

Survey of pile capacities using WEAP.

MEUNIER, J. (1984) "Laws of soil-pile interaction in a pile driving simulation program." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Soil-Pile interaction. Program ADIG -- method of characteristics.

MIDDENDORP, P., and JONKER, G. (1988) "Prediction of Vibratory Hammer Performance by Stress Wave Analysis." Presented at the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Ottawa, Ontario, 25-27 May 1988.

MILITARY ENGINEER (1962) "Sonic Pile Driver -- Tests and Performance," The Military Engineer, Vol 54, No. 362, November-December 1962, pp. 440-441.

MINING MAGAZINE (1966) "Sonics Technology in Pile Driving, " Mining Magazine, Vol. 115, No. 1, July, pp. 71, 73.

MITWALLY, H.M. (1987) Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Structures. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Western Ontario.

This study comprises three main parts: (1) Pile Driving Analysis. The conventional one dimensional wave equation analysis of the pile driving problem suffers from the empirical representation of the soil parameters. In this study, an improved one dimensional wave equation model is developed which accounts for wave propagation in the soil mass and thus gives more realistic prediction of the pile displacements. A three dimensional finite element analysis of the problem is also formulated and its results are compared with those of the one dimensional analysis. The finite element analysis is computationally very expensive which is not justified due to its sensitivity to the input parameters. (2) Modelling of Wave Forces. Lack of spatial correlation of short crested waves is accounted for using a coherence function model and the wave forces estimated using this model are compared with those estimated using the directional spectrum model. Both models are found to give comparable resultant wave forces and their attenuation with separation if their parameters are properly chosen. The error resulting from assuming a constant water particle velocity along the tributary length is examined and appears to be small. (3) Response of Fixed Offshore Towers to Random Wave Forces Accounting for Pile-Soil-Pile Interaction. Dynamic pile-soil-pile interaction under the effect of wave forces is usually neglected in the design of offshore towers. It is examined and found to have a significant effect on the response of the tower to random waves. It is incorporated in the analysis using dynamic interaction factors which consider pile-soil separation. The response of the tower is found to be greatly influenced by pile-soil-pile interaction which is attributed to the increase in flexibility and damping of the tower.

MITWALLY, H., and NOVAK, M. (1988) "Pile Driving Analysis Using Shaft Models and FEM." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 455-466. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

MOSHER, R.L. (1987) "Comparison of Axial Capacity of Vibratory Driven Piles to Impact Driven Piles." USACEWES Technical Report ITL-87-7, September.

MOSHER, R.L. (1990) "Axial Capacity of Vibratory-Driven Piles Versus Impact-Driven Piles," Presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 7-11 January 1990.

MURFF, J.D. (1987) "Pile Capacity in Calcareous Sands: State of the Art." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 113, Number 5, May 1987. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.

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NARASIMHA RAO, S., and MALLIKARJUNA RAO, K. (1993) "Behaviour of rigid piles in marine clays under lateral cyclic loading." Ocean Engineering (ISSN:0029-8018) v 20 p 281-93 May.

NEW ENGLAND CONSTRUCTION (1962) "Guild Drives Pile Sonically at Harvard, " New England Construction, October 22.

NEWFARMER, L.R. (1966) "Quiet, the Pile Driver." Mineral Information Service, California Division of Mines and Geology, Vol. 19, No. 4, April, pp. 55-58.

NIELSEN, R.W. (1994) "Vibratory Pile Drivers." Foundations, Vol. 6, No. 29, May, pp. 16-18.

NOVAK, M., and HAN, Y. C. (1990) "Impedances of soil layer with boundary zone." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ISSN:0733-9410) v 116 p 1008-14 June

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OBERHETTINGER, F., and BADII, L. (1973) Tables of Laplace Transforms. New York: Springer-Verlag.

O'NEILL, M.W., and REESE, L.C. (1970) Behavior Of Axially Loaded Drilled Shafts In Beaumont Clay. Part One - State Of The Art. Texas Univ, Center for Highway Research, December, Rpt. No 89-8, 147 pp.

A drilled shaft is a foundation element formed by boring A cylindrical hole into the soil and backfilling the hole with concrete. Also known as bored piles, drilled piers, drilled caissons, and cast-in-situ piles, such shafts have accounted for a significant part of the total number of deep foundation elements constructed in the recent past. Their economic attributes often dictate their selection over driven piles, especially in stiff clay. Considerable interest attaches to their behavior under load, the subject of the present study. This first volume describes at length the current state of knowledge about drilled shafts. The following topics are discussed: (1) description and historical development. (2) construction procedures: excavation techniques, reinforcement, concrete, typical problems, effect of construction method on behavior under load, and comparison of drilled shafts and driven piles. (3) mechanics of drilled shaft behavior: removal of applied load, resistance of subbase soil, and mathematical synthesis of behavior. (4) current design and analysis methods: prediction of allowable compressive load and of settlement, design of drilled shafts in expansive soils, negative side resistance, lateral load, uplift capacity, concrete deterioration, and behavior of groups of axially loaded drilled shafts. (5) previous field studies.

O'NEILL, M.W., and VIPULANANDAN, C. (1989) "Appropriate Field Measurements for Testing Capacity - Prediction Methods for Piles Installed by Vibration." Presented at the Fourteenth Annual Members' Conference of the Deep Foundations Institute, Baltimore, MD, 9-11 October 1989.

O'NEILL, M.W., and VIPULANANDAN, C. (1989) "Laboratory Evaluation of Piles Installed with Vibratory Hammers." NCHRP Report 316. Washington: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington D.C. 20418.

This report presents the results of a large-scale laboratory study on the basic behavior of displacement piles installed with vibratory drivers compared to impact hammers and the influence of various soil and driver parameters on the behavior of piles. In order to achieve the desired goals, a model testing system consisting of a long sand column capable of simulating deep sand deposits, instrumented 4-in.-diameter closed-ended pile, vibratory driver and impact hammer was designed and built. Among the driver parameters investigated are frequency, bias mass and dynamic force (eccentric moment) and sand parameters such as grain size, relative density (65 and 90%) and in-situ effective stress (10 and 20 psi). Two uniform sands with effective grain sizes of 0.2 and 1.2 mm were selected for this study, and a total of 22 large-scale model tests were performed. The optimum frequency for the test conditions, selected based on the maximum rate of penetration, was 20 Hz and was independent of bias mass and soil conditions. Among the variables investigated, the relative density of sand had the greatest effect on the rate of penetration during vibro-driving. Penetration rate also increased with increasing bias mass and decreasing in-situ horizontal stress. Grain size had a smaller, and variable, effect on rate of penetration and on bearing capacity. Impact-driven piles in sand with 65% relative density developed 25% higher shaft resistance and 15 to 20% higher toe resistance in compression than the vibro-driven piles, but this trend was completely reversed at 90% relative density, where the vibro-driven pile exhibited better static performance than the impact-driven pile. The uplift resistance that developed along the shaft of both vibro-driven piles and impact driven piles was 75% of the corresponding resistance developed in compression. Restriking of vibro-driven piles in sand with 65% relative density produced a very small increase in compression capacity, but there was no clear trend for the relative density of 90%. A design method has been proposed to predict the bearing capacity of a vibro-driven pile from rate of penetration, power delivered to the pile head and soil conditions. Appendices B through Q are contained in a separate volume, as submitted by the research agency to the sponsors. Volume 2, with the same title and authors, was prepared in December 1988 and is available for purchase by written request to the NCHRP.

O'NEILL, M.W., VIPULANDAN, C., and WONG, D.O. (1990a) "Evaluation of Bearing Capacity for Vibro-Driven Piles from Laboratory Experiments," Presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 7-11 January 1990.

O'NEILL, M.W., VIPULANDAN, C., and WONG, D.O. (1990b) "Laboratory Modeling of Vibro-Driven Piles." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 116, No. 8, August 1990. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York New York 10017-2398.

In an attempt to improve understanding of the performance of vibro-driven piles, this study identified soil parameters, in situ stresses, and vibro-driver parameters that significantly affect driveability, bearing capacity, and load-movement behavior of vibro-driven piles. The study also compared the performance of vibro-driven piles (with and without restrike) to that of impact-driven piles. It was found that there is an optimum frequency for driving piles using a vibro-driver. For the driver-pile-soil system studied, a unique driving frequency of 20 Hz yielded the highest rate of penetration for the range of soil conditions, eccentric moment, and bias mass forces. These and other study findings are discussed.

O'NEILL, M.W., VIPULANDAN, C., and WONG, D.O. (1990c) "Behavior of Vibro-Driven Piles in Sand." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 116, No. 8, August 1990. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York New York 10017-2398

The study attempted to better understand and predict the load movement characteristics and the static bearing capacity of vibro-driven displacement piles with and without restrike in saturated, submerged sand. Complementary large-scale model pile driving tests and analytical studies were conducted to identify the effects of soil parameters and in situ stresses on the behavior of vibro-driven piles in sands. The behavior of vibro-driven piles was also compared with that of impact-driven piles. The soil parameters considered were effective particle size and relative density. Several methods were proposed to predict the load-movement relationships and bearing capacity of driven piles. Conclusions drawn from the study are presented.

O'NEILL, M.W., and VIPULANANDAN, C. (1991) "Modeling of Penetration Resistance and Static Capacity of Piles Driven by Vibration at the Pioneer Freezer Site, Syracuse, NY, and Laboratory Model Tests." Report to the Deep Foundations Institute, 1 October 1991.

O'NEILL, M.W., and VIPULANANDAN, C. (1992) "Modelling of Vibratory Pile Driving in Sand." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 16, pp. 189-210.

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PACIFIC BUILDER AND ENGINEER (1962) "Sonic Pile Driver Used for First Time on Building Foundation," Pacific Builder and Engineer, Vol. 68, No. 9, September, p. 13.

PADUANA, J.A., and YEE, W.S. (1974) Lateral Load Tests On Piles In Bridge Embankments. Transportation Research Record Number 517. Washington: Transportation Research Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418. TRIS accession number: 084129

Field lateral load tests were performed on embankment piles at three bridge sites in northern California. The investigation included determination of lateral load-deflection behavior of individual vertical embankment piles, correlation of test results with theoretical solutions, and determination of experimental values of n sub h, the constant of horizontal subgrade reaction (or k, the subgrade modulus), for bridge embankment conditions. The pile tests showed that a linear variation of horizontal subgrade modulus with depth (k equals (n sub h) x) is a reasonable approximation; values of n sub h varied from 10 to 65 lb/cu in. (2.7 to 17.6 N/cc), with higher values for the stiffer embankment; results suggest a simple rough approximation, n sub h approximately equal to N, where N is the average blows per foot from standard penetration tests within the depth of the embankment; a fixed-head pile resists approximately twice the lateral load as a free-head pile at the same lateral deflection of 0.25 in. (0.64 cm); the computed effective length of the embankment test piles varied from 8 to 12 ft (2.4 to 3.7 m); a compacted fill of 12 ft (3.7 m) provides the major support for a laterally loaded pile and the influence of the underlying natural deposit is negligible.

PAIK, K.-H., and LEE, S.-R. (1993) "Behavior of soil plugs in open-ended model piles driven into sands." Marine Georesources & Geotechnology (ISSN:1064-119X) v 11 p 353-73 October/December

PAIKOWSKY, S.G., WHITMAN, R.V., and BALIGH, M.M. (1989) "A new look at the phenomenon of offshore pile plugging." Marine Geotechnology (ISSN:0360-8867) v 8 no3 p 213-30.

PAIKOWSKY S.G. and CHERNAUSKAS L.R. (19920 Energy approach for capacity evaluation of driven piles. F. Barends (ed.), Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1992, A.A. Balkema, The Hague, 595-601.

PAIKOWSKY S.G., REGAN J.E., and MCDONNELL J.J. (1994) A simplified field method for capacity evaluation of driven piles. Publication No. FHWA-RD-94-042, 1994.

PAIKOWSKY S.G. and CHERNAUSKAS L.R. (1996) Soil inertia and the use of pseudo viscous damping parameters. F. Townsend, M. Hussein & M. McVay (eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1996, Orlando, University of Florida, 203-216.

PARKER, E., GUAITA, P. and RENTOCCHINI, R. (1996) "Closed Form Solution to Wave Equation for Steam and Hydraulic Hammers." Presented at the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Orlando, FL, 11-13 September 1996.

PAROLA, J.F. (1970) Mechanics of Impact Pile Driving. Ph.D. Thesis, University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign. UMI ProQuest AAC 7114903

PAUNESCU, M. (1966) Folasierea Vibratiilor La Executarea Unor Lucrari de Fundatii. Editura Tehnica, Bucuresti, 302 p.

PEREZ, H.T. (1961) "Rig Drives piles ultra fast...with ultrasonic waves." Construction Methods and Equipment, Vol 43, No. 11, November 1961, pp. 82-83.

PERLEI, H.T. (1964) Shallow, Deep Foundations and Soil Mechanics (in Russian) Consultants Bureau, New York, May-June, pp. 147-152.

PETROVSKII, I.G. (1967) Partial Differential Equations. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.

PETRUSHKIN, L., FRIDMAN, I., MORGAILO, V., AND KRAKINOVSKII, L. (1963) Vibromolot S-834: Raschet (Impact-Vibration Hammer S-834: Calculation.) Moscow: VNIIstroidormash, 1963.

PETRUSHKIN, L., FRIDMAN, I., AND MORGAILO, V. (1964) Vibromolot S-834: Vremennaya Instruktsiya po Ekspluatatsii (Preliminary Operating Instructions.) Moscow: VNIIstroidormash, 1964.

PETRUSHKIN, L., FRIDMAN, I., AND ANTINOV, B. (1967) Vibromolot S-467M: Rachetno-Poyasnitelnaya Zapiska i Instruktsiya po Ekspluatatsii. Rabochii Proyekt (Impact-Vibration Hammer S-467M: Memorandum of Calculation and Analysis and Preliminary Operating Instructions. Project Works.) Moscow: VNIIstroidormash, 1967.

POULOS, H.G. (1974) "Analysis Of Pile Groups Subjected To Vertical And Horizontal Loads." Institution of Engineers (Australia) Journal, Volume G4, Number 1. Sydney: Institution of Engineers, Australia, Science House, Gloucester and Essex Streets, Sydney, Australia. TRIS accession number: 082835

Three methods of analysing the behaviour of pile groups are described, a well established statical method in which no account is taken of pile-soil interaction, a method in which the pile group is replaced by an equivalent structural bent and a method based on elastic theory in which interaction between the piles is taken into account in a logical manner. Comparisons between these three methods indicate that consideration of inter-pile interaction in the soil leads to increased maximum loads and moments in a group, although the deflections and rotations may not differ greatly. A parametric study is made of the deflections and rotation of typical pile groups, using the elastic interaction method. The effects of pile batter, increased pile spacing and increased pile stiffness in decreasing the group deflections and rotation are examined.

POULOS, H.G. (1975) "Lateral Load-deflection Prediction For Pile Groups." ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div, Volume 100, Number GT1, Proc. Paper 11061. TRIS accession number: 081406

A simple method of predicting the load-deflection behaviour of a laterally loaded pile group is developed by combining a non linear load-deflection analysis for a single pile with an elastic analysis of pile groups. The parameters most influencing the prediction are the soil modulus and the ultimate lateral load of a pile in the group, H sub u. The soil modulus may be backfigured from a lateral load test on a single pile and a method of interpretation of the test is described. The lateral load capacity of an isolated single pile also may be estimated and by multiplying this value by a lateral group efficiency factor, H sub ur may be determined. A number of comparisons between the observed and predicted load-deflection behaviour of model pile groups, show good agreement and suggest that the proposed method is capable of providing satisfactory load-deflection predictions for laterally loaded pile groups, provided appropriate values of soil modulus and H sub ur can be input into the analysis.

PRADHAN, TEJ B.S., TATSUOKA, F., and SATO, Y. (1989) "On Stress-Dilatancy Equations of Sand Subjected to Cyclic Loading." Soils and Foundations, Vol. 29, No. 1, March, pp. 65-81.

PRADHAN, TEJ. B.S., and TATSUOKA, F. (1989) "Experimental Stress-Dilations of Sand Subjected to Cyclic Loading" Soils and Foundations, Vol. 29, No. 1, March, pp. 45-64.

PRAKASH, S., RANJAN, G., and GHUMMAN, M.S. (1989) "Response of a Pile Driven by Longitudinal Vibrations." Proceedings of the Twelth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, pp. 959-962.

PRASAD, Y. V. S. N., and NARASIMHA RAO, S. (1994) "Experimental studies on foundations of compliant structures under static loading." Ocean Engineering (ISSN:0029-8018) v 21 p 1-13 January.

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RABENSTIEN, A.L. (1972) Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations. Second Enlarged Edition. New York: Academic Press.

Basic text on ordinary and partial differential equations.

RAGULSKIS, K., and YURKAUSKAS, A. (1985) Vibration of Bearings. (in Russian; English translation available) Mashinostroyeniye, Moscow

RANDOLPH M.F., CARTER J.P. and WROTH C.P. (1979) Driven piles in clay - the effect of installation and subsequent consolidation. Geotechnique, 1979, 29(4), 361-393.

RANDOLPH, M.F., and SIMONS, H.A. (1986) "An Improved Soil Model for One-Dimensional Pile Driving Analysis." Numerical Method in Offshore Piling, pp. 3-18. Paris: Éditions Technip.

RAO, S.N. (1993) "Uplift Behavior Of Pile Anchors Subjected To Lateral Cyclic Loading." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 119, No. 4, pp. 786-790. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017-2398. TRIS accession number: 627735

This is a study of the effect of lateral cyclic loading on pullout capacity of rigid piles in clayey soils through experimental investigations carried out on model piles. The study showed that when a short rigid pile is subjected to lateral cyclic loading, pullout capacity as well as lateral capacity will be affected. The reduction in pullout capacity mainly depends upon the lateral deflection of the pile during cyclic loading, and on its L/d (L=length of embedment of the pile; d=pile diameter) value. These results are discussed.

RAUSCHE F. (1970) Soil response from dynamic analysis and measurements on piles. Thesis presented to the Case Western Reserve University, at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1970, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

RAUSCHE F., GOBLE, G.G. and LIKINS, G. (1985) Dynamic determination of pile capacity. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 1985, Vol. 111(3), 367-383.

RAUSCHE F., HUSSEIN M. and SVINKIN M. (1994) "Application of the wave equation to pile driving analysis". Proc., Fourth Inter. Conf. on Problems of Pile Foundations, Perm State Technical University, Russia, 1994, 222-227a.

RAUSCHE F., THENDEAN G., ABOU-MATAR H., LIKINS G.E. and GOBLE, G.G., (1996) Determination of Pile Driveability and Capacity from Penetration Tests. Final Report, FHWA Contract No. DTFH61-91-C-00047, 1996.

REBRIK, B.M. (1966) Vibration equipment in drilling works. (in Russian) Moscow, Nedra.

RESEIGH, A.S. (1961) "Sonic Waves Drive Piles," Providence Sunday Journal, October 29, 4 p.

RESEIGH, A.S. (1962) "Sonic Pile Driver Proves Worth, " Providence Sunday Journal, July 22, 2 p.

RICKARD, A.W. (1965) "Pile Driving methods and Plant, " The Plant Engineer, Vol. 9, No. 7, January-February, pp. 195-201.

RICE C.G. and CODY W.K. (1992) Impact and ramification of setup for pile foundations. Proceedings of 17th annual members' Conference, 1992, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 239-251.

RIPLEY, J.G. (1964) "Vibro Rig Speeds Pile Driving, " Engineering and Contract Award, Vol. 77, No. 5, May, pp. 55-57.

RODGER, A.A., and LITTLEJOHN, G.S. (1980) "A Study of Vibratory Driving on Granular Soils," Geotechnique, Vol 30, No. 3, pp. 269-293

ROSS ESSON, D.M. (1963) "Pile Driving by Vibration," Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, Vol. 58, February, pp. 205-208 March, pp. 389, 391.

RUSAKOV, I.G., and KHARKEVICH, A.A. (1942) Vynyzhdennye Kolebaniya Sistemy Udaryaioshcheisya ob Ogranichitel (Forced Vibrations of a System Impacting on a Limiter) Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki 12, #11-12, Moscow, p. 261.

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SAKAI, T. (1988) "Solution of the Wave Equation for Pile-Driving Analysis." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 251-260. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

Method of characteristics solution with information about boundary conditions.

SATTER, M.A. (1990) "Bearing Capacity Prediction from Pile Dynamics," Presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 7-11 January 1990.

SATTER, M.A. (1991) "Low-Frequency Vibropile Driving and Prediction of Dynamic Tip Resistance of Piles." Transportation Research Board, No. 1331.

SANTONI, P. (1993) "Specifications for Control of Vibrations During Blasting and Pile Driving." Master's Thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

SAVINOV, O.A., and LUSKIN, A.Ya. (1960) Vibratsionnyi metod pogruzheniya svai i ego primenenie v stroitelstve (Vibrational method of pile driving and its application in construction.) Leningrad, Gosstroiizdat.

SAVINOV, O.A. (1964) Raboty Po Sozdaniyu Novogo Vibratsionnogo Oborudovaniya Dlya Pogruzheniya Svai (Studies on the creation of a new vibration equipment for Driving Piles). TsINTIAM OS-U, pp. 59-65.

SCHMID, W.E., and HILL, H.T. (1966) "The Driving of Piles by Longitudinal Vibrations." Princeton Soil Engineering, Research Series No. 4, June 1966.

SCHMID, W.E. (1969) "Driving Resistance and Bearing Capacity of Vibro-Driven Model Piles," STP 444, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 362-375.

SCHMID, W.E. (1970) "Low Frequency Pile Vibrators. " Conference on Design and Installation of Pile Foundations of Cellular Structures, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, Proceedings, pp. 257-265.

SCHMIEQ, H., and VIELSACK, P. (1986) "Influence of Friction on a Harmonically Forced Rotational Oscillator in Dry Sand." Acta Mechanica, Vol. 62, pp. 169-182.

SCHMIEQ, H., and VIELSACK, P. (1987) "Irreversible Displacement in Dynamic Systems as Applied to Pile Drivers." (in German) International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 15-25.

SHEKHTER, O.J. (1955) "The Amplitude of Force Vibrations of Piles as a Function of Vibrator Characteristics." Science Research Institute, Proceedings, Vol 2, pp. 3-7.

SHIRAI, E.N. (1978) Primenenie Vibrotekhniki v Shakhtnom Stroitelstve (Vibrational equipment application in mining construction.) Moscow, Nedra.

SIMONS, H.A., and RANDOLPH, M.F. (1985) "A new approach to one dimensional pile driving analysis." Fifth International Conference on Numerical methods in Geomechanics, April 1-5, pp. 1457-1464.

SIRADHAR, P.K, and RAMASAMY, G. (1973) Analysis Of An Axially And Laterally Loaded Tapered Pile In Sand. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Vol. 13, No. 4, IRRD 210239. Tokyo:Japanese Society of Soil Mech & Foundation Engrs, 13-5, 1-chome, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minoto-ku. TRIS accession number: 081341.

In The Soil Surrounding A Laterally Loaded Pile, There Are Two Zones; The Top Plastic Zone Where The Soil Yields Once The Ultimate Resistance Is Reached And The Bottom Elastic Zone Where The Soil Reaction Is Proportional To Pile Deflection. In This Paper, An Analysis Is Presented For An An Axially And Laterally Loaded, Uniformly Tapering Circular Pile Embedded In Sand, Taking Into Account The Plastic Behaviour Of The Soil Near The Ground Surface. The Differential Equations Governing The Pile Deflection At The Top Plastic Zone And The Bottom Elastic Zone Are Transformed To Non-dimensional Form And Solutions Are Obtained. Free- Free And Fixed-free End Conditions Are Considered. Top Deflection Coefficients And Maximum Moment Coefficients Are Plotted Against Lateral Load Factor For Different Axial Load Factors And Taper. For Given Axial And Lateral Loads, The Top Deflection And The Maximum Moment Are Found To Increase With Taper. The Fixity At The Top Considerably Reduces The Deflection At The Top. A Numerical Problem Is Worked Out To Illustrate The Use Of The Plots To Obtain The Top Deflection And The Maximum Moment.

SKOV R. and DENVER H. (1988) Time-dependence of bearing capacity of piles. Fellenius (ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, BiTech Publishers, 1988, Ottawa, Canada, 879-888.

SMART, J.D. (1970) "Vibratory Pile Driving." Doctoral Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. UMI ProQuest AAC 7000983.

Wave equation solution from microwave source.

SMITH E.A.L. (1955) Impact and longitudinal wave transmission. Transaction ASCE, 1955, August, 963-973.

SMITH, E.A.L. (1960) "Pile-Driving Analysis by the Wave Equation." Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, August, pp. 35-61. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

SMITH, I.M., and TO, P. (1988) "Numerical Studies of Vibratory Pile Driving," International Journal for Numerical and Analytical methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 12, pp. 513-531.

STEFANOV, G., and BOSHINOV, B. (1977) "Bearing Capacity of Hollow Piles Driven by Vibration." Ninth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, Proceedings, Vol. 2, pp. 753-758.

STORZ, M. (1991) "Chaotic Motion in Pile-Driving." Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering V, First International Conference Soil Dynamic Earthquate. Computational Mechanics Publ., Southhampton, England, pp. 503-512.

SVINKIN M.R. and ZHUCHKOVA A.Y. (1972) "Dynamic tests of foundations on type-I slump prone soils". Soil Mech. and Found. Engrg., Publishing Corporation, New York, 1972, 9(1), 33-36.

SVINKIN M.R. (1980) "Determination of dynamic loads transmitted to a hammer foundation". Soil Mech. and Found. Engrg., Publishing Corporation, New York, 1980, 17(5), 200-201.

SVINKIN M.R. (1982) "Determining the vibration amplitude of foundation supporting crankshaft presses". Soil Mech. and Found. Engrg., Publishing Corporation, New York, 1982, 19(3), 99-102.

SVINKIN M.R. (1991) "Predicting vibrations of soil and buildings excited by machine foundations under dynamic loads". Proc., 2nd Inter. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotech. Engrg. and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, 1991, 1435-1441.

SVINKIN M.R. (1992) "Pile driving induced vibrations as a source of industrial seismology". Proc., Fourth Inter. Conf. on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1992, 167-174.

SVINKIN M.R. and ABE S. (1992) "Relationship between case and hysteretic damping". Proc., Fourth Inter. Conf. on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1992, 175-182.

SVINKIN M.R. (1992) "Discussion of 'Free vibration of embedded foundations: theory versus experiment' by Gazetas, G. and Stokoe, K.H.". J. Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, 118(11), 1992, 1862-1863.

SVINKIN M.R. (1993) "Analyzing man-made vibrations, diagnostics and monitoring". Proc., 3rd Inter. Conf. on Case Histories in Geotech. Engrg., University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, 1993, 1, 663-670.

SVINKIN M.R. and TEFERRA W. (1994) "Some aspects of determination of pile capacity by the wave equation". Proc., ASCE Structural. Congress 94, Session on Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Atlanta, 1994, 946-951.

SVINKIN M.R. (1994) "Pile capacity as a function of time in clayey and sandy soils". Proc., Fifth Inter. Conf. and Exhibition on Piling and Deep Founds., Bruges, Belgium, 1994, 1.11.1-1.11.8.

SVINKIN M.R. (1994) "Influence of pile parameters on pile driveability". Proc., Inter. Conf. on Design and Construction of Deep Foundations, FHWA, Orlando, Florida, 1994, II, 1150-1164.

SVINKIN M.R. (1995) "Pile-soil dynamic system with variable damping". Proc., 13th International Modal Analysis Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, February, 1995, 240-247.

SVINKIN M.R. (1995) "Vibrations of impact machine foundations and footing settlements". Proc., Third Inter. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotech. Engrg. and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, 1995, 797-802.

SVINKIN M.R. (1995) "Soil damping in saturated sandy soils for determining capacity of piles by wave equation analysis". Proc., DFI Annual Member's Conference, Charleston, South Carolina, 1995, 199-216.

SVINKIN M.R. (1996) "Discussion of 'Setup and relaxation in glacial sand' by York, D.L. et al.". J. Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, 122(4), 1996, 319-321.

SVINKIN M.R. (1996) "Discussion of 'Impact of weight falling onto the ground' by Roesset, J.M. et al.". J. Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, 122(5), 1996, 414-415.

SVINKIN M.R. (1996) "Overcoming soil uncertainty in prediction of construction and industrial vibrations". Proc., Geotech. Engrg. Congress. Uncertainty in the Geologic Environment: From Theory to Practice, Madison, Wisconsin, August 1-3, 1996, 1178-1194.

SVINKIN M.R. (1996) "Soil damping in wave equation analysis of pile capacity". Proc., Fifth Inter. Conf. on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Orlando, Florida, September 11-13, 1996, 128-143.

SVINKIN M.R. (1996) "Velocity-impedance-energy relationships for driven piles". Proc., Fifth Inter. Conf. on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Orlando, Florida, September 11-13, 1996, 870-890.

SVINKIN M.R. (1997) "A method for estimating frequencies of machine foundations". U.S. Patent No. 5,610,336 issued March 11, 1997.

SVINKIN M.R. (1997) "Time-dependent capacity of piles in clayey soils by dynamic methods". Proc., XIVth Inter. Conf.on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engrg., Hamburg, Germany, September 6-12, 1997, 1045-1048.

SVINKIN M.R. (1997) "Numerical methods with experimental soil response in predicting vibrations from dynamic sources". Proc., Ninth Inter. Conf. of the Inter. Assoc. for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, Wuhan, China, November 2-7, 1997, 2263-2268.

SVINKIN M.R. and WOODS R.D. (1998) "Accuracy of determining pile capacity by dynamic methods" Proc., Seventh Inter. Conf. and Exhibition on Piling and Deep Founds., Vienna, Austria, 1998, 1.2.1-1.2.8.

SWANN, L.H., and ABBS, A.F. (1984) "The use of wave equation in calcareous soils and rocks." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Calcareous soils.

SZECHY, C. (1961) "The Effects of Vibration and Driving upon the Voids on Granular Soil Surrounding a Pile." Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering, Vol. 2, pp. 161-164.

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TADA, H., OHSHIMA, K., KAMINAGA, K., UEKI, Y., and FUKUWAKA, M. (1985) "New Dynamic Formula Applied to Hydraulic Pile Hammer.: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

Method of images solution for wave equation -- method of reflections. Formula based on wave equation.

TAKAHASHI, K. (1985) "Driving and Loading of Steel Pipe Piles in the Ground with Limestones of Coral." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

Calcareous Soils.

TAN, S.A. (1985) A Simplified Method For The Wave Equation Analysis Of Pile Driving (Bearing Capacity, Peak Driving Stress, Load Tests, Bearing Graph). Ph.D. Thesis, University Of California, Berkeley. UMI AAC 8525134.

The objective of this research was to develop a simplified method for the wave equation analysis of pile driving, suitable for developing bearing graphs for a wide range of hammer and pile conditions, and for estimating the stresses in the pile during driving. This research study has resulted in a method that can be applied to a wide variety of conditions, for cases of land-based piles driven with air/steam hammers. The method has the reliability and accuracy of the numerical wave equation method, but with sufficient simplicity to be accomplished quickly in the field with the aid of a programmable pocket calculator. Development of the method involved the use of non-dimensional and semi-analytical techniques to develop simplified empirical equations, based on a large number of wave equation computer analyses performed using programs WEAP and CUWEAP. The method accounts for all the variables used in WEAP and their influence on the results of wave equation analyses. The method has been reduced to a BASIC language computer program of about 150 lines; 100 lines for bearing graph calculations, and 50 lines for the stress calculations. The program can be loaded into a programmable pocket calculator, making it fully portable and thus usable as an analytical tool at pile driving sites. Analyses were performed of several case studies involving field load tests measurements of pile bearing capacity and a few cases of measured maximum head stress in order to evaluate the simplified method as compared to the computer wave equation analysis. Good agreement between field measurements and calculated results both by the simplified method as well as CUWEAP for all of the cases studied indicate that the simplified method has sufficient accuracy and reliability to be very useful as an improved tool for pile driving analysis.

TAVENAS F. and AUDY R. (1972) Limitations of the driving formulas for predicting the bearing capacities of piles in sand. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 1972, Canada, 9(1), 47-62.

THENDEAN G, RAUSCHE F., SVINKIN M. and LIKINS G. (1996) Wave equation correlation studies. F. Townsend, M. Hussein & M. McVay (eds.), Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 1996, Orlando, University of Florida, 144-162.

THOMPSON C.D. and THOMPSON D.E. (1985) Real and apparent relaxation of driven piles. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 1985, Vol. 111, No. 2, 225-237.

THOMPSON, C.D., and GOBLE., G.G. (1988) "High Case Damping Constants in Sand." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 186-196. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

Case Damping Constants.

TIMOSHENKO, S.P., and GOODIER, J.N. (1970). Theory of Elasticity. Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Incorporated.

Foundational text on wave mechanics.

TOLSTOV, G.P. (1962) Fourier Series. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc..

TORSTENSSONBA Friction Piles Driven In Soft Clay - A Field Study. Nat Swedish Inst Building Research.

Friction piles driven into soft clay have been in common besides routine testing of the soil a special study was clay the use of pile foundations has become widespread in with shear strength measurements in-situ by means of vane capacity of friction piles have predominantly been experimental and empirical. Experience from several loading tests on piles has shown that the average shearing stress mobilized on the shaft of a pile driven into a soft, normally consolidated clay is about equal to the undisturbed, undrained shear strength of the clay. This simple relationship may only br fortuitous since it is the hear strength of the disturbed and reconsolidated clay surrounding a pile that governs the ultimate skin resistance the report deals with research on large model piles driven into a sensitive, very soft clay to study the effect of pile driving on the soil and the effects of pile material and pile dimension as well as rate of displacement (duration of a loading test) on both the skin shear stress/displacement characteristics of the piles and the ultimate skin resistance. In addition, some piles were instrumented to study the phenomena of load transfer as well as the magnitude of total and effective radial pressures in the soil surrounding a driven pile. The tests were made in an area located about 10 km north of the city of Gothenburg. The soil is composed of postglacial and glacial sediments to a depth of about 40 M. The tests described in the report

TNO reports - (1985-96) TNODLT Dynamic Load Testing Signal Matching, Users Manual, 1985-1996.

TOMLINSON M.J. (1971) Some effects of pile driving on skin friction behaviour of Piles, ICE, 1971, London, 107-114.

TSAPLIN, S.A. (1953) Vibroudarnye Mekhanizmy Dlya Dorozhno-Mostovogo Stroitelstva (Impact-Vibration mechanisms for Road Bridge Construction). Avtotransizdat, Moscow.

TSCHEBOTARIOV, G.P. (1959) "How Russians drive piles by vibration." Engineering News-Record, 16 July 1959, pp. 53-54.

TSCHEBOTARIOV, G.P., and BODINE, JR., A.G. (1962) "More on Pile-Drivers, " Civil Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 2, February, p. 63.

TSEITLIN, M.G. (1973) "Improvement of the Capacity of Vibrating Hammers for Driving Pipes into Soils." Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (English Translation of Osnovaniya, Fundamenty i Mekhanika Gruntov), Vol No. 3, May-June, pp. 152-156.

TSEITLIN, M.G., and KOSHELEVA, A.A. (1984) "Vibratory Embedment of Long Piles and Tubes and Their Extraction." Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (English Translation of Osnovaniya, Fundamenty i Mekhanika Gruntov), Vol. No. 3, May-June, pp. 112-117.

TSEITLIN, M.G., VERSTOV, V.V., and AZBEL, G.G. (1987) Vibratsionnaya Tekhnika I Tekhnologiya V Svainykh I Burovikh Rabotakh (Vibratory Methods and the Technology of Piling and Boring Work). Stroiizdat, Leningradskoe Otdelenie, Leningrad.

TSEITLIN, M.G., and IZOFOV, V.O. (1989) "Vibro Pile-Driving of Metallic Sheet Piles Under Reconstruction and Urban Development Conditions." Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (English Translation of Osnovaniya, Fundamenty i Mekhanika Gruntov), Vol. 26, No. 2, September, pp. 37-40.

TUCKER, L.M., and BRIAUD, J.-L. (1988) "Analysis of the Pile Load Test Program at the Lock and Dam 26 Replacement Project." U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Paper GL-88-11, Vicksburg, MS.

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UTO, K., FUYUKI, M. and SAKURAI, M. (1985) "An equation for the Dynamic Bearing Capacity of a Pile Based on Wave Theory." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

Closed form solution -- method of images or reflections -- used to develop formula.

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VALSANGKAR, A.J., KAMESWARAR, A.J.N.P., and BASUDHAR, P.K. (1973) Generalized Solutions Of Axially And Laterally Loaded Piles In Elasto-plastic Soil. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Vol. 13, No. 4, IRRD 210238. Tokyo:Japanese Society of Soil Mech & Foundation Engrs, 13-5, 1-chome, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minoto-ku. TRIS accession number: 081340.

The Soil-structure Interaction Problem Concerning The Response Of Individual Piles To Externally Applied Loads Is Discussed. For Any Realistic Analysis Of This Problem, It Is Essential To Take Into Account Both The Elastic And Plastic Properties Of The Soil, As Both These States Occur Along The Embedded Length Of The Pile. Analysis And Results Are Presented For The Problem Of Axially And Laterally Loaded Piles, Taking Into Account Elasto-plastic Nature Of The Soil For Both Cohesive And Cohesionless Soils. The Results Indicate That The Flexural Behaviour Of Laterally And Axially Loaded Pile In An Elasto-plastic Soil Is Considerably Influenced By Type Of Variation Of Plastic Resistance, Soil Modulus Variation And The Boundary Conditions At The Top.

VAN KOTEN, H., MIDDENDORP, P., and VAN BREDERODE, P. (1980) "An analysis of dissapative wave propagation in a pile." Proceedings of the International Seminar on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

VAN WEELE, A.F., and KAY, S. (1984) "Analytical Results with Numerical Programs." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Problems with numerical methods.

VESIC, A.S. (1977) Design of Pile Foundations. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice, NCHRP Project 20-5, 68 pp. Washington: Transportation Research Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418. TRIS accession number: 167571

This report reviews design principles and construction problems associated with pile foundations, and recommends criteria based on current knowledge. The problem of determining whether or not the site conditions are such that piles must be used is discussed, as well as the selection of the pile type. The ultimate load on a pile is the load that can cause failure of either the pile or the soil. The pile failure condition may govern design where pile points penetrate dense sand or rock, but in most situations, ultimate load is determined by the soil failure. The computation of the ultimate load is discussed. For design purposes the ultimate load is separated into two components: the base or point load, and the shaft or skin load. The displacements needed to mobilize skin resistance, the mechanics of load transfer between pile and soil, and the settlement analysis of pile foundations is reviewed. Pile spacing, lateral deflection, slope or pile axis, position and magnitude of maximum bending moment are covered, as well as lateral loading caused by horizontal displacement, buckling, and pile driving. In-situ full-scale pile load tests are also discussed.

VIKING, K. (1997) Vibratory driven piles and sheet piles -- a literature survey. Report 3035, Div. of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, pp. 1-75.

VIKING, K. (1998) Driveability studies of vibro-driven model piles -- Laboratory simulations. Licentiate Thesis, Div. of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, pp. 1-120.

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WANG, Y.X. "Determination of Capacity of Shaft Bearing Piles Using the Wave Equation." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 337-342. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

Solution of the Wave Equation using the Method of Weighted Residuals.

WARD, C.J. (1974) "Evaluation of Hydroacoustic Rapid-Impacting Pile Driver." Naval Facilities Engineering Command Report TN-1362, Alexandria, VA.

WARDLE I.F., PRICE G. and FREEMAN T.J. (1992) Effect of time and maintained load on the ultimate capacity of piles in stiff clay. Piling: European practice and worldwide trends, ICE, 1992, London, 92-99.

WARRINGTON, D.C. (1987) "A Proposal for a Simplified Model for the Determination of Dynamic Loads and Stresses During Pile Driving." Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Dallas, TX. OTC 5395.

WARRINGTON, D.C. (1988) "A New Type of Wave Equation Analysis Program." Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, pp. 142-151. Vancouver: Bi-Tech Publishers.

WARRINGTON, D.C. (1989a) "Theory and Development of Vibratory Pile Driving Equipment." Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Dallas, TX. OTC 6030, pp. 541-550.

WARRINGTON, D.C. (1989b) "Drivability of Piles By Vibration." Presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the Deep Foundations Institute, Baltimore, MD, 9-11 October 1989.

WARRINGTON, D.C. (1990a) "Method for Analysis of the Drivability of Piles by Vibration," Presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 7-11 January 1990.

WARRINGTON, D. (1990b) "Vibratory Pile Driving Equipment." Published in the anthology Materials and Equipment for Marine Construction. Jupiter, FL: Pile Buck, Inc.

WARRINGTON, D., and EROFEEV, L.V. (1991) "Development and Improvement of Impact-Vibration Pile Driving Equipment in the USSR." Pile Buck, First May Issue 1991. Jupiter, FL: Pile Buck, Inc.

WARRINGTON, D.C. (1992) "Vibratory and Impact-Vibration Pile Driving Equipment." Pile Buck, Second October Issue 1992. Pile Buck, Jupiter, FL.

WARRINGTON, D., EROFEEV, L.V, and NIFONTOV, V.A. (1993) "Russian Diesel Hammers." Pile Buck, First May Issue 1993. Jupiter, FL; Pile Buck, Inc.

WARRINGTON, D., EROFEEV, L.V., NIFONTOV, V.A. and TRIFONOV-YAKOVLEV, D.A. (1993) "New Method and Device for Breaking and Removing of Protruding Pile Parts." Pile Buck, First June Issue 1993. Jupiter, FL; Pile Buck, Inc.

WARRINGTON, D. (1993) "Topics Concerning Pile Driving Equipment and Pile Soil Interaction." Proceedings of the Workshop on Effects of Piles on Soil Properties, 13-15 July 1993. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Miscellaneous Paper GL-95-2. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station.

WARRINGTON, D., DMITREVICH, Yu. V., EROFEEV, L.V., and NIFONTOV, V.A. (1993) "Russian Hydraulic Demolition Hammers." Pile Buck, Second November Issue 1993. Jupiter, FL: Pile Buck, Inc.

WARRINGTON, D.C. (1994) "Survey of Methods for Computing the Power Transmission of Vibratory Hammers." Pile Buck, Second August Issue 1994. Pile Buck Inc., Jupiter, FL.

WARRINGTON, D.C., and EROFEEV, L.V. (1995) "Russian Impact-Vibration Pile Driving Equipment." Pile Buck, Second May Issue, 1995. Jupiter, FL: Pile Buck, Inc.

WARRINGTON, D. C.(1996) "Deflections of Pile Toe Plates on Elastic Foundations." Pile Buck, Second January Issue 1996. Jupiter, FL: Pile Buck, Inc.

WARRINGTON, D. C. (1996) "Development and Potential of the Wave Equation in Closed Form as Applied to Pile Dynamics." Presented at the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 11-13 September 1996, Orlando, FL.

WARRINGTON, D. C. (1997) Closed Form Solution of the Wave Equation for Piles. Master’s Thesis, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.

WARRINGTON, D.C. and WYNN, R.H. (2000) "Comparison of Numerical Methods to Closed Form Solutions for Wave Equation Analysis of Piling" Presented at the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Tennessee Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Smyrna, Tennessee, November 3, 2000.

Warrington, D.C., and Lindahl, H.A. (2002) "Installation of Sheet Piles." Pile Buck, January Issue. Palm City, FL: Pile Buck, Inc.

Warrington, D.C. (2002) “A Firm Foundation for the Capital Beltway.” Pile Buck, November Issue. Vero Beach, FL: Pile Buck, Inc.

Warrington, D.C. (2006) “Development of a Parameter Selection Method for Vibratory Pile Driver Design with Hammer Suspension.” Presented at the Colloquium of the Department of Mathematics of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga 26 September 2006.

Warrington, D.C. (2007) “A Pile Design Analyser for Academic Use.” Pile Buck, March 2007 Vero Beach, FL: Pile Buck International, Inc.

Warrington, D.C. (2007) “A Cautionary Note About Foundation Design and Platforms.” Pile Buck, April 2007. Vero Beach, FL: Pile Buck International, Inc.

Warrington, D.C. (2011) “An Overview of Wave Mechanics in Piling.” Pile Buck, Vol. 27 No. 2, 1011, pp. 8-28.

WEBSTER, A.G. (1966) Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics. Second Corrected Edition, pp. 173-179. New York: Dover Publications.

WHITAKER, T. (1970) The Design of Piled Foundations. Pergamon, Oxford, 1970.

WHITE, J.L. (1990) "Understanding the Vibratory Pile Driver/Extractor: A Field Man's Perspective." Presented at the Fifteenth Annual Members' Meeting of The Deep Foundations Institute, Seattle, WA, 10-12 October 1990.

WILSON, L.C. (1976) "Tests Of Bored And Driven Piles In Cretaceous Mudstone At Port Elizabeth, South Africa" Institution of Civil Engineers Geotechnique, Vol. 26 No. 1, Mar 1976 pp 5-12

Three specially constructed test piles were loaded to failure to determine design values for shaft adhesion and end bearing in pile sockets in mudstone. The loading test results were related to strength tests on the rock. Cross-jacking tests in the pile sockets and crushing tests on mudstone cubes correlated well with the pile test results, indicating an ultimate end bearing capacity of nine times the undrained shear strength and an average shaft adhesion factor z=0.2. Unconfined compression tests on cylindrical core specimens appeared to underestimate, and point-load strength tests to overestimate, the mudstone strength. Subsequently some piles were driven into the same mudstone. A loading test on a test pile indicated adequate bearing capacity with much smaller depth of penetration into the mudstone than required for the bored piles. The test showed that the grouted anchor cables developed an adhesion factor z of at least 0.4. (a). This paper forms part of the second geotechnique symposium in print: "piles in weak rock". For the covering abstract of the symposium see IRRD abstract no.220250.

WISEMAN G. and ZEITLEN J.G. (1983) Wave equation analysis of pile driving using personal computers and programmable calculators. Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1983, Faculty Publication No. 294, Haifa.

WOLF, J.P. (1992) "Simple Physical Models for Foundation Vibration -- Towards Strength-of-materials approach," Tenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, July 19-25.

WOLTERS, H.R, ERAS, R.A.W., and BRONS, K.F. (1984) "Experiences in calculating and measuring fast dynamic phenomena for the Development of a New Type of Pile Driving Hammer." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory On Piles. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

RDM Hammer. Description of various methods of analyzing pile using stress waves, incl. method of characteristics.

WONG, D.O. (1985) "Design and Analysis of an Apparatus to Simulate Density and Stresses in Deep Deposits of Granular Soils." Master's Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Houston, pp. 53-55.

WONG, D.O. (1988) "Driveability and Load Transfer Characteristics of Vibro-Driven Piles." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Houston, December. UMI ProQuest AAC 8912678, 368p.

Piles installed by vibration have been a foundation practice since the early 1930's. The method has not gained wide acceptance in the U.S. because of limited understanding on driveability and load transfer mechanisms. Restriking vibro-driven piles is very often required for analysis. A large scale laboratory study on the basic behavior of displacement piles installed with vibratory drivers compared to impact hammers and the influence of various soil and driver parameters on the behavior of piles was undertaken. In order to achieve the desired goals, a model testing system consisting of a long sand column capable of simulating deep sand deposits, instrumented 4-in.-diameter closed-ended pile, vibratory driver and impact hammer was designed and built. Among the driver parameters investigated are frequency, bias mass and dynamic force (eccentric moment) and sand parameters such as grain size, relative density (65 and 90%) and in-situ effective stress (10 and 20 psi). The optimum frequency for the testing conditions, selected based on the maximum rate of penetration, was 20 Hz and was independent of bias mass and soil conditions. Among the variables investigated, the relative density of sand had the greatest effect on the rate of penetration during vibro-driving. Penetration rate also increased with increasing bias mass and decreasing in-situ horizontal stress. Impact-driven piles in sand with 65% relative density developed higher resistance in compression than the vibro-driven piles, but vibro-driven piles exhibited better static performance in sand with 90% relative density. Restriking of vibro-driven piles in sand does not significantly change the compression capacity. Four design methods to predict the bearing capacity of a vibro-driven pile have been proposed and a procedure to select a vibro-driver for given soil conditions is recommended. A computer program has also been developed to model vibratory driving.

WONG, D.O. (1992) "Modelling of Vibratory Pile Driving in Sand." International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 16, pp. 189-210.

WONG, D.O. (1992) "Lateral Subgrade Modulus Of Sands For Deep Foundations." Transportation Research Board No. 1336, pp. 70-80. Washington: Transportation Research Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418. ISBN 0309051746

The common practice of designing laterally loaded deep foundations is either by means of the lateral subgrade modulus concept or by the lateral load transfer method. The lateral subgrade modulus for sands is a function of several factors including deflection, which itself is usually an unknown. The lateral load transfer method is readily available to analyze laterally loaded deep foundations by using p-y curves. However, p-y curves are complicated mathematical relations and by no means offer a simple representation of the pile-soil interaction. The concept of the equivalent subgrade modulus for sands, in which the nonlinear pile-soil characteristics are implicitly taken into account, is presented. Relationships of equivalent subgrade modulus versus dimensionless lateral load factor for sands are developed, and a design procedure is proposed. Comparison of solutions by the proposed design procedure and the lateral load transfer method is favorable.

WU, A.K.H., KUHLEMEYER, R.L., and TO, C.W.S. (1989) "Validity of Smith model in pile driving analysis." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ISSN:0733-9410) v 115 p 1285-302 September.

WU, A.K.H. (1990) Development Of Simple Pile Driving Model For Axially-loaded Long Piles: A Model Including Pile-soil Interaction And Energy Radiation (Soil). Ph. D. Thesis, University of Calgary. UMI ProQuest AAC NN61693.

A refined pile shaft-soil model is developed for simulation of dynamic pile-soil interaction behaviour during driving. The accuracy of the model is confirmed by vaRious finite element solutions. The model considers both the relative slip at the pile-soil interface and the energy loss due to wave propagation while the effects of soil material damping and soil yielding that is adjacent to the pile are neglected (legitimately neglected based upon studies presented herein). The influence of soil nonlinearity on pile response is investigated by using a Ramberg-Osgood soil stress-strain relation. An equivalent bilinear soil stress-strain relation is proposed to approximate the soil nonlinearity in pile driving analysis. The Ramberg-Osgood relation is also used to simulate a more realistic nonlinear pile shaft-soil interface behaviour. Comparisons based on pile segment responses show that the rigid-plastic interface relation cannot produce nonlinear pile-soil interface behaviour while the proposed equivalent bilinear interface relation is capable of accurately representing the behaviour of this nonlinear interface under low frequency loading conditions. The refined pile shaft-soil model is incorporated into a full length lumped pile model. A lumped pile model computer program is developed by using a combined type of finite element and wave equation numerical technique and its correctness verified. The great value of the lumped pile model is confirmed by its capability to predict accurately and economically the finite element solutions.

WU, P.K. (1966) "The Resistance of Soils in Vibro-Sinking of Precast Reinforced Concrete Pipe Piles of Large Diameter." Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and and Foundation Engineering, Montreal, Canada.

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YAMAGATA, K., and SETO, T. (1985). "Method for Preventing the Local Buckling of Hammer-Driven Steel Pile Piles." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Penetrability and Drivability of Piles, San Francisco, 10 August 1985. Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

Pile misalignment, buckling and damage.

YANG, E.L. (1967) "An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Superimposed Longitudinal Vibration on the Rate of Penetration of a Pile-Simulating Rod," Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University, Order Number 67-10934, 151p.

YANG N.C. (1970) Relaxation of piles in sand and inorganic silt. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, 1970, Vol. 96, No. SM2, 395-409.

YORK, D.L. (1970) "Structural Behavior Of Driven Piling Highway Research Record." Hwy Res Board No 333, pp 60-73.

A review of the structural behavior of driven piles is made, and it is shown that, except for piles that fail because of improper construction or piles that deteriorate in service, there are very few reports of structural failure. The various reasons for this excellent record are examined; one of the principal reasons is the remarkable load-carrying capacity of damaged piling. Several case histories are described involving the behavior of damaged piling under load and load tests on pile groups. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the allowable stresses used in practice, and a few situations are cited where it appears that the allowable loading on driven piles could be safely increased. /author/

YORK D.L., BRUSEY W.G., CLEMENTE F.M. and LAW S.K. (1994) Setup and relaxation in glacial sand. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 1994, 120(9), 1498-1513.

YOUD, T.L. (1967) "The Engineering Properties of Cohesionless Materials During Vibration." Ph.D. Thesis, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, O.N. 68-5996, 98p.

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ZHOU, J. and LIANG, R.Y. (1996) "Identification of Soil-Pile Interaction Model Parameters from HST Data." Presented at the Fifth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, 11-13 September 1996, Orlando, FL.

Driven Pile Manual Volume 1a
Driven Pile Manual 1b
Driven Pile Manual 2