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Title: LATERAL RESPONSE OF A PILE NEAR A CUT OR A SLOPE

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 218277

Report No: R270

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 8/00/75 Pagination: 33 pp

Figures: 15 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 16 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Sydney University, Australia

School of Engineering

Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: A theoretical analysis is made of the effect of a slope or cut on the load-deflection behaviour to failure of a single laterally loaded pile in clay. This analysis utilizes elastic theory but allows for yield of the soil. The results of the analysis are presented as a series of correction factors to previously-obtained solutions for a pile in A soil with no cut or slope. These solutions show that the effect of the cut or slope is only significant if the pile is closer than about four pile diameters away, and that the effect of the depth of the slope is most significant for relatively stiff piles. The direction of loading does not effect deflections within the elastic range but does significantly affect the ultimate load, and hence the load-deflection behaviour, after yielding of the soil occurs. The results of a series of model pile tests confirm most of the above theoretical trends and show reasonable agreement with values of deflection and ultimate load calculated from the theory. (A) /TRRL/

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 218277

Title: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH CONFERENCE OF THE AUSTRALIAN ROAD RESEARCH BOARD, ADELAIDE, 1974, VOLUME 7, PART 7: ROAD STRUCTURES, FOUNDATIONS, SURFACES AND MATERIALS, SESSION H5: FOUNDATIONS, SESSION H6: CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 220017

Publication Title: Australian Road Research Board Conference Proc

Volume: 7 Number: 7

Publication Date: 0/00/75 Pagination: pp 139-291

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos: Phots.

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Australian Road Research Board

500 Burwood Road

Vermont South, Victoria 3133, Australia

Available from:

Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The following papers were presented at sessions H5 and H6: Settlement analysis of piles in layered soil, Valliappan,S, Lee,IK and Boonlualohr,P; Slender steel piles loaded to failure, Hoadley,PJ; An application of dynamic cone penetrometers in the design of piled foundations for bridges, Mitchell,PW and Nechvoglod,VV; Construction and performance of a soft foundation embankment - A102 Launceston, Tasmania, Woodward,HM and Meyer,PA; Experimental behaviour of circular concrete hinges, Plesiotic,S, Base,GD and Schmidt,LC; Prototype investigation of a complex box girder bridge, Priestley,MJN and Miles,JW; Some design aspects of a 215 metre prestressed concrete box girder bridge, Gralton,J and Finwick,JM; Bridge over Wilson river at telegraph point, N.S.W., Fredericks,BR; The construction and testing of a one-tenth scale model of a prestressed concrete bridge, Gilmour,RS and Watson,LK. /TRRL/

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 220017

Title: RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENTS

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Circular

Volume: Number: 179

Publication Date: 9/00/76 Pagination: 44 pp

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Transportation Research Board

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Available from:

Transportation Research Board Business Office

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Research problem statements are presented which were identified and developed by 38 committees of the Design and Construction Group (II) of the Transportation miscellaneous statements. The statements which received top priority include those related to the optimum design and use of highway shoulders, dropping freeway lanes, pavement distress and pavement performance, the distribution of wheel loads of highway bridges, and the deflection limitations for bridge structures. Reducing dependence on moisture control on hot mix plant operations, tender mixes, and abrasive resitance, surface durability, and skid resistance of concrete pavements also received priority. Akali-reactive silicones and silicate rocks, contingency cost in construction, expansion joints, nuclear density determination, lime and lime-fly ash stabilization load tests in pile groups, freez-thaw environments, and low volume roads were among further problem areas which received attention. Statements receiving priority by committees include several which range from the design and operation of passing zones, calibration methods for road roughness meters, paint systems for repainting old structural steel and coating new steel, and the evaluation of geophysical methods. Each statement describes the problem, the objectives of the study, current activities in the area, and the degree of urgency associated with it.

Supplementary notes: This circular supplements circular 160 dated November 1974 in which 81 priority research needs were identified by 17 of the Group's committees.

Title: FULL-SCALE LATERAL LOAD TESTS OF PILE GROUPS-DISCUSSION

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Matlock, H

Foo, SHC

Discusser(s):

Gleser, SM

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 102 Number: GT12

Report No: ASCE #11849

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 12/00/76 Pagination: pp 1288-92

Figures: Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 1 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Abstract Information

Abstract: Attention is focused on the authors results which showed the degree to which the tips of the H-piles moved and rotated relative to their prescribed positions during driving. Effects which could be expected from the use of H-piles are discussed, and comments are made on a rough analysis of the geometry of group III to determine what effects could be expected from the fact that the various piles were not in their intended locations. The test results on monoliths 19 and 20 are also discussed. Comments are made on pile group efficiency and it is shown that the authors' so-called "efficiency" may be due to the difference between free- head and fixed-head conditions. It is shown that a pile can resist 2.0 times the lateral load under a fixed-head condition as under a free-head condition at the same lateral deflection of 0.2 in. (5.08 mm). Further interpretation and discussion of the results by the authors is urged.

Title: LATERALLY LOADED PILES: PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Reese, LC

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 103 Number: GT4

Publication Date: 4/00/77 Pagination: pp 287-305

Figures: 11 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 14 Ref. Appendices: 3 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Abstract Information

Abstract: The documentation is presented for the computer program COM622, which solves for the deflection and bending moment of a pile under lateral loading as a function of depth. The colculations are performed on a finite difference model of the pile, and the soil is represented by a series of nonlenear curves of force per unit length vesus deflection. This is the first program documented and distribution under the standards developed for the Geotechnical Engineering Division. /ASCE/

Title: RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENTS. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSPORTATION

FACILITIES GROUP

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Circular

Volume: Number: 179

Report No:

Period Covered: 700000

Publication Date: Pagination: 44 pp

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Transportation Research Board

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Available from:

EKPE

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Research problem statements are presented which were identified and developed by 38 committees of the Design and Construction Group (II) of the Transportation Research Board. The statements are rated in 2 priority categories and other miscellaneous statements. The statements which received top priority include those related to the optimum design and use of highway shoulders, dropping freeway lanes, pavement distress and pavement performance, the distribution of wheel loads on highway bridges, and the deflection limitations for bridge structures. Reducing dependence on moisture control on hot mix plant operations, tender mixes, and abrasive resistance, surface durability, and skid resistance of concrete pavements also received priority. Akali-reactive silicones and silicate rocks, contingency cost in construction, expansion joints, nuclear density determination, lime and lime-fly ash stabilization load tests in pile groups, freez-thaw environments, and low volume roads were among further problem areas which received attention. Statements reveiving priority by committees include several which range from the design and operation of passing zones, calibration methods for road roughness meters, paint systems for repainting old structural steel and coating new steel, and the evaluation of geophysical methods. Each statement describes the problem, the objectives of the study, current activities in the area, and the degree of urgency associated with it.

Supplementary notes: This circular supplements Circular 160 dated November 1974 in which 81 priority research needs were identified by 17 of the Group's committees.

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF PILE-SUPPORTED STRUCTURES (PART 2)

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Mitsui Technical Review

Publication Title: Mitsui Technical Review

Report No: No. 99

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/77 Pagination: pp 26-27

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Ltd

6-4 Tsukiji, 5-chome, Chuo-ku

Tokyo, Japan

Available from:

Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Ltd

6-4 Tsukiji, 5-chome, Chuo-ku

Tokyo, Japan

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The linear elastic analysis method of pile-supported structures has been presented in the first report and in this paper, a non-linear analysis method and a buckling analysis method are studied. In the first section, the non-linear structural analysis method is considered in conjunction with a computer program. If the foundation is a non-linear elastic continuum, the coefficient (K value) of horizontal subgrade reaction of the ground varies in accordance with the amount of displacement so that the K value was computed on the basis of load deflection curve, P-Y, by iteration method. As an example, the result of the analysis of plane frame is reported. The buckling analysis of a pile buried in a elastic continuum by finite method is described in the second section. In order to investigate the buckling load, the stiffness matrix and initial stress matrix of a pile buried in an elastic continuum based on the formula of Y. L. Chang have been induced and the buckling loads were calculated after preparing a compatibility and equilibrium equation at each node. In the design of offshore and harbour structures, it is very difficult to quickly and exactly calculate the external forces but a computer program called COSMS has been developed. The COSMS can automatically compute the force of wave and current, wind and dead load necessary for structural calculation. It is expected that the COSMS can be linked with the analysis program for nonlinear pile structures in the near future.

Title: STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ASPHALT PAVEMENTS AND CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL

INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Housel, WS

Publication Information:

Report No: Proceeding

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 1/00/77 Pagination: pp 739-785

Figures: 29 Fig. Tables: 6 Tab. Photos:

References: 33 Ref. Appendices: 5 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Michigan University, Ann Arbor

Department of Civil Engineering

Ann Arbor, MI

Abstract Information

Abstract: This paper reviews the development of field loading tests to measure the bearing capacity of soil masses and pavements supported by soil masses. Time, load, settlement or deflection, and the size of the bearing area are the four basic quantities which must be measured to determine load bearing capacity. The relationship between these variables has been clearly and accurately established by more than forty years of research and practice by various agencies. This primary objective and the corollary requirement of field verification have been achieved by an exhaustive study of data from the Hybla Valley project where both field loading tests on the pavement structure and laboratory tests of the materials in each component of the pavement were available. In every case including subgrade, base course, and the bituminous surface, the stress reactions and soil resistance coefficients measured by the field loading tests could be computed from the laboratory tests within an acceptable range of accuracy for the materials involved and the normal experimental error which would be expected in comparing field and laboratory tests. The test results under discussion, available since 1936, provide a body of experimental evidence to be evaluated which cannot be passed over without careful study. For many years internal stability based on these data has been successfully applied in design of caissons and high capacity bearing piles supported on highly consolidated granular soils and granular cohesive mixtures. These practical applications have demonstrated that these materials will develop internal stability up to the crushing strength of the grains without lateral displacement. It should be recognized that the vital role of such granular materials and mixtures becomes a controlling factor in design of flexible asphalt pavements.

Supplementary notes: Volume I of proceedings of 4th International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, Ann Arbor, Michigan, August 22-26, 1977.

Title: PROBLEMS OF CREEP AND SHRINKAGE IN CONCRETE. DOCUMENTS PREPARED BY THE TSNIIS FOR THE SECOND FEDERAL CONFERENCE

Foreign Title: PROBLEMY POLZUCHESTI I USADKI BETONA--MATERIALY VTOROGO VSESOYUZNOGO SOVESCHANIYA, PODGOTOVLENNYE K PECHATI TSNIIS

Foreign Language: Russian

Author(s):

Kyrlov, AV

Tsejtlin, AL

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Central Laboratory

of Bridges & Highways, France

Source Data: IRRD-104872

Publication Title: Teniis Shornik

Report No: Mong Ser.

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/74 Pagination: v.p.

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The following papers were presented: Application of the creep theory in regulations governing the construction of prestressed concrete bridges, by V.A. Berg, E.N. Scherbakor and G.I. Kichigina; Design of prestressed concrete statically indeterminate structures under the effect of applied displacements, by Y.A.D. Livshits; Design of reinforced concrete slabs taking cracking and creep into account, by I.E. Prokopovich and A.F. Yaremenko; Computerized calculations of prestressed concrete statically indeterminate bridges taking concrete shrinkage and creep into account, by A.V. Krylov and A.L. Krylov and A.L. Tsejtlin; Application of the Monte Carlo Method to the design of prestressed concrete bridges taking concrete creep and shrinkage into account, by A.L. Tsestlin and A.V. Krylov; Redistribution of forces in statically indeterminate prestressed concrete structures subjected to long-term loading, by L.I. Borisova and L.A. Gurovaya; Taking Creep into account in the Analysis of Thermal Stresses in bridge foundations, by A.I. Tsimerinov; Calculation of a reinforced concrete pile subjected to simple horizontal stress taking account of soil and concrete creep, by A.A. Evin; Approximation and Forecast of curves describing the creep of concrete subjected to constant compressive stress, by E.N. Shcherbakov; The influence of creep on the long-term strength of concrete, by Y.U.V. Zajtsev; Influence of cycle compressive stresses on the strength, deformability and of cement quality on the shrinkage of mortar, by E.N. cycles, by K.S. Karapetyan; Influence of permanent tensile stress on the strength and deformability of concrete according to the scale effect, by K.S. Karapetyan and R.A. Kotikyan; Influence of the temperature of the aquecus medium on the strength and deformability of concrete, by O.I. Kvitsaridze and M.M. Kerelidze; Experimental study of reinforced concrete beams subjected to heavy long-term loads, by I.E. Prokopovich and V.I. Polvets; Experimental research on prestressed concrete beams subjected to long-term repetitive loading, by A.Y.A. Barashikov and N.M. Fedoseeva; Deflection of Reinforced concrete frames subjected to long-term graduated loads, by N.N. Kalyshenko and L.A. Murashko; Deformations of Reinforced concrete frames subjected to long-term transient loads, by L.A. Murashko and A.Y.A. Barashikov; Experimental study of the deflections of prestressed concrete beams subjected to long-term loading, by V.A. Edgenidze; The influence of some factors on the development of concrete shrinkage, by E.N. Shcherbakov and R. Mamazhanov; Phenomena specific to the shrinkage of concrete containing polymer admixtures and impregated with polymer, by G.S. Royak, V.L. Solntseva, and I.V. Granovskaya; Evaluation of the influence of some chamical and mineralogical characteristics of cement on concrete shrinkage, by E.N. Shcherloakov and F.P. Sybru.

Title: SIMULATION OF LATERAL PILE BEHAVIOR UNDER EARTHQUAKE MOTION

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Matlock, H

Foo, SHC

Bryant

Publication Information:

Report No: Proceeding

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 6/00/78 Pagination: pp 600-619

Figures: 12 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 21 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Abstract Information

Abstract: The analysis presented herein is concerned with the behavior of a single pile, with particular emphasis on the soil-pile coupling. Simplified superstructure effects are considered, and separately determined free-field soil displacements are used as the input excitation. A discrete-element mechanical analogy is used to represent a pile under various loadings and restraints. The soil-pile coupling at each node is represented by a multi-element assemblage of friction blocks, springs and dashpots which facilitate and development of hysteretic pile-soil interaction under earthquake loading. The soil model allows strength degradation as a function of deflection and of the number of reversals of deflection in the range beyond an initially elastic condition. Furthermore, to properly represent the expected pile-soil interplay, formation of gaps are allowed in the upper layers. Lateral earth motions are simulated by moving the supports with respect to the point of initial zero deflection of the pile. /Author/

Supplementary notes: From Volume I of Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics--Proceedings of the ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Division Specialty Conference, June 19-21, 1978, Pasadena, California. Sponsored by Geotechnical Engineering Division of ASCE in cooperation with: ASCE Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, ASCE Los Angeles Section of their Geotechnical Engineering Group, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Soil and Foundation Engineers Association, Structural Engineers Association of Southern California, U.C.L.A. College of Engineering, University of Southern California, and California Institute of Technology.

Title: PREDICTION OF PILE PERFORMANCE IN PERMAFROST UNDER LATERAL LOAD

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Rowley, RK

Watson, GH

Ladanyi, B

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 233663

Publication Title: Canadian Geotechnical Journal

Volume: 12 Number: 4

Publication Date: 11/00/75 Pagination: pp 510-523

ISBN: ISSN: 00083674

Figures: 6 Fig. Tables: 3 Tab. Photos:

References: 15 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

National Research Council of Canada

Montreal Road

Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Abstract Information

Abstract: In 1971 lateral pile tests were performed at Inuvik, NWT to determine design values in creep for timber and steel pipe piles. Formulation of a theoretical method for prediction of pile load capacity from basic permafrost creep parameters was a part of this program. In 1972 pressuremeter creep tests were performed at the same site so that test pile performance could be predicted independently and compared with measured results. The pressuremeter tests made and the creep parameter values obtained, the predicted pile performance curves and the comparisons with actual test data are presented in this paper. A menard pressuremeter was used to determine permafrost creep parameters at an average ground temperature of 29.2 deg F (-1.6 deg C). Values for the representative creep modulus and exponents for this soil were derived from the test data. These were used for calculating pressure-deflection curves and subgrade reaction moduli for the laterally loaded piles. To demonstrate the applicability of the theory, the subgrade reaction moduli derived from the pressuremeter tests were compared with those deduced directly from the pile load tests. A reasonable agreement was found with the subgrade reaction moduli values obtained for the timber piles. However, the steel pipe piles responded as though the modulus was much higher. The confirmation field tests were made at a site having ice-rich permafrost whose behaviour approaches that of pure ice. To apply the basic theory generally, additional field confirmation tests would be needed, for example, in ice-poor permafrost and covering much longer periods of time. /Author/TRRL/

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 233663

Title: THE BEHAVIOUR OF DEAD ANCHORS SUBJECTED TO REPEATED AND ALTERNATING

LOADS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Hanna, TH

Sivapalan, E

Senturk, A

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 233768

Publication Title: Ground Engineering

Volume: 11 Number: 3

Publication Date: 4/00/78 Pagination: p 28

ISBN: ISSN: 00174653

Figures: 14 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 21 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Foundation Publications Limited

7 Ongar Road

Brentwood CM15 9AU, Essex, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: Ground anchors essentially comprise a high strength tendon which is fixed in the ground by means of grout, and in general they are used to resist pull-out forces such as occur with transmission towers, dry dock floors such as tied-back retaining walls. The authors discuss the effect of prestressing such anchors to stiffen the system, and suggest that in the past little or no attention has been given to the effects of repeated loading of both prestressed and dead (zero prestress) anchors. This paper presents the results of a study into static loading effects related to the repeated loading of foundations - in such cases inertia forces are very small and therefore negligible. A review of previous relevant work is presented. The test equipment illustrated and described consisted of six identical test rigs constructed to fulfil the basic requirements of (1) that any sand density could be achieved, (2) that any sand stress history could be maintained, (3) that the plate-shape anchors used could be subjected to both uplift and compressive loading in a cycle of loading if necessary, and (4) that very small changes in load could be applied. Information is provided on the materials used, and the test sequences adopted, and the results of static load tests and repeated load tests are presented in graphical form and discussed. It is suggested that despite limitations inherent in the tests, trends and conclusions can be drawn from the results. First, dead anchors when subjected to load repetitions sustain non-recoverable movements, the movement per cycle of load decreasing with the number of loadings. A family of curves exist for a particular anchor system and the life of an anchor will depend primarily on the load range for a particular limiting deflection. Secondly, alternating loads cause much more severe loading conditions and the life of an anchor is markedly reduced. /TRRL/

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 233768

Title: BENDING ELEMENT FOR CIRCULAR BEAMS AND PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kuhlemeyer, RL

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 105 Number: GT2

Publication Date: 2/00/79 Pagination: pp 325-330

Figures: 3 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 10 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Abstract Information

Abstract: The formulation for a good approximation to a bending finite element of circular cross section is presented. The three-degree-of-freedom-per-nodal-point characteristic of the element permits an efficient solution to the three-dimensional problem of lateral displacement and rotation of transversely loaded circular beams. The good accuracy of the element was confirmed by studying the deflection of cantilever beams subjected to lateral loads. More detailed studies should be undertaken to assess the fundamental characteristics of the element. However, the problem of interest for which the element was developed is the laterally loaded pile problem of interest for which the element was developed is the laterally loaded pile problem (force-displacement relationship). The studies described herein confirmed that the element is accurate and especially suited for solving this pile problem because small diameter piles can be accurately modeled using relatively long, thin elements. /Author/

Title: LATERALLY LOADED PILES: PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION. CLOSURE

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Reese, LC

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 104 Number: GT12

Report No: ASCE 12862

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 12/00/78 Pagination: pp 1518-20

Figures: 2 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 2 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Abstract Information

Abstract: The author addresses questions raised by discussers which relate to: the program input units; the uniformity of output results from three examples; and the desirability to set the limits for pile-load deflection to a value larger than one pile diameter. The fundamental questions of p-y curves are also discussed. For the estimation of response of a pile to lateral load, the author favors the use of the computer program and p-y curves because most of the practical problems involve the treatment of more parameters than can be dealt with in simple terms. It is impossible, however, to develop design curves for some situatons that give the engineer a good starting point. Such curves have been developed for the design of drilled shafts under lateral loading.

Title: SITE TESTS CLEAR DOUBTS ON BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Road Research Laboratory /UK/

Publication Title: Contract Journal /UK/

Publication Date: 5/00/71 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE METHOD USED TO TEST THE PERFORMANCE OF THE STEEL CASED CLOSED END PILES WHICH SUPPORT THE NEW BRIDGE BEING BUILT ACROSS THE COVENTRY CANAL AT NUNEATON IS DESCRIBED. LOAD WAS APPLIED IN INCREMENTS AND DEFLECTION READINGS WERE TAKEN THROUGHOUT THE TEST AND PLOTTED AGAINST TIME AND LOAD. SETTLEMENT WAS FOUND TO BE INSIGNIFICANT. /RRL/

Supplementary notes: Vol 241, No 4786, 373 PP, 2 PHOT

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3C27160269

Title: LATERAL RESISTANCE AND DEFLECTION OF VERTICAL PILES-INTERIM REPORT NO.

1

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Yee, WS

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Federal Highway Administration

Source Data: 4613372 72

Report No: Study No D-4-74

Period Covered:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

California Division Highways

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Federal Highway Administration /US/

Abstract Information

Abstract: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CURRENT THEORETICAL SOLUTIONS FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES AND FULL-SCALE FIELD TESTS OF LATERALLY LOADED VERTICAL PILES IN A BRIDGE EMBANKMENT HAVE BEEN MADE. AN EXTENSIVE LITERATURE SEARCH WAS MADE, AND TWO CURRENT APPROACHES, THE REESE AND MATLOCK NONDIMENSIONAL SOLUTIONS AND THE FINITE DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS, WERE SELECTED FOR COMPARISON WITH ACTUAL FIELD PERFORMANCE. THREE FULL- SCALE LATERAL LOAD TESTS WERE CONDUCTED ON 6 STEEL PIPE PILES (10 3/4-INCH O.D., FILLED WITH CONCRETE) FOR ABUTMENT NO. 3 AT THE OCCIDENTAL DRIVE OVERCROSSING IN SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA. IN ADDITION, A SPECIAL TEST WAS CONDUCTED ON TWO 10-INCH SQUARE PRESTRESSED PILES. EVIDENCE IS PRESENTED SHOWING THAT THE EXPERIMENTALLY DETERMINED VALUE OF K (THE COEFFICIENT OF SOIL MODULUS VARIATION IN THE EXPRESSION E=KX) CAN BE USED WITH EITHER THE REESE AND MATLOCK EXPRESSIONS OR THE FINITE DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS TO GIVE RELIABLE PREDICTIONS OF BENDING MOMENTS AND STRESSES IN LATERALLY LOADED PILES IN BRIDGE ABUTMENTS. COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE THEORETICAL AND MEASURED BENDING MOMENTS SHOW THAT A LINEAR VARIATION OF THE SOIL MODULUS, E WITH DEPTH, X, BELOW THE GROUND SURFACE (E=KX) IS A GOOD APPROXIMATION. THE RESULTS ALSO SHOW THAT THE MAJOR SUPPORT FOR THE LATERALLY LOADED PILES WAS PROVIDED ALMOST ENTIRELY BY THE 12 FT UPPER STRATUM OF EMBANKMENT MATERIAL. /AUTHOR/

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3C62022834

File Reference: REPORT PENDING

Title: LATERAL LOADS ON PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Evans, JR

Hummel, PL

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Federal Highway Administration

Report No: Noce 72-r2 Final Rept

Period Covered:

Publication Date: Pagination: 56 pp

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Hawaii Department of Transportation

/Hwys Div Report N

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Hawaii University

Publisher/Corporate Author 3:

Federal Highway Administration /US/

Abstract Information

Abstract: VERTICAL PILES AND PILES LOADED AGAINST THE BATTER EXHIBIT ABOUT THE SAME ALLOWABLE LATERAL LOAD CAPACITY WHETHER THE CRITERIA FOR SELECTION BE DEFLECTION, MAXIMUM MOMENT OR ULTIMATE CAPACITY. THE SOIL-PILE CAPABILITY OF PILES LOADED WITH THE BATTER IS LESS THAN THE CAPACITY OF THE TWO CASES LISTED ABOVE BUT WOULD HAVE AN ADVANTAGE WHEN VERTICAL LOADS ARE ACTING DUE TO THE MORE FAVORABLE RELATIONSHIP OF THE COMPONENTS NORMAL TO THE PILE. PILES DRIVEN IN GROUPS CAN EFFECTIVELY DEVELOP TWICE THE CAPACITY OF SINGLE PILES, AT THE SAME DEFLECTION AND SMALLER VALUES OF MAXIMUM MOMENT, FOR CUSTOMARY PILE SPACING, PROVIDED THAT ADEQUATE REINFORCEMENT IS AVAILABLE TO MINIMIZE PILE BUTT ROTATION /FHWA/

Supplementary notes: Contract No 11485

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 4C62023207

File Reference: FHWA S0070

Title: ANALYSIS AND FULL-SCALE LATERAL LOAD TESTS "PILE GROUP FOUNDATIONS."

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kim,

Brungraber,

Kindig,

Goodman,

Singh,

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Pennsylvania Department Transp

Report No: Final Rpt

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 7/00/73 Pagination:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Bucknell University

Abstract Information

Abstract: LATERAL LOAD TESTS WERE PERFORMED ON THREE GROUPS OF SIX PILES EACH AND TWO ISOLATED SINGLE PILES (ONE VERTICAL AND ONE BATTER). TWO GROUPS HAD VERTICAL PILES, ONE GROUP WITH 4 FT. SPACING AND ONE GROUP WITH 3 FT. SPACING. THE THIRD GROUP ALSO HAD 3 FT. SPACING BUT FOUR OF THE PILES WERE BATTERED TO A SLOPE OF 3.5 TO 1. THE LOADING SEQUENCE WAS INTENDED TO SIMULATE THAT OF BRIDGE ABUTMENT FOUNDATIONS. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT EACH PILE IN A GROUP HAVING 4 FT. SPACING HAS A LATERAL LOAD RESISTANCE APPROXIMATELY 4.3 TIMES THAT OF A SINGLE VERTICAL PILE WHILE FOR A GROUP HAVING 3 FT. SPACING THE INCREASE IN LATERAL CAPACITY IS ONLY BY A FACTOR OF 2.2. THE RESULTS ALSO INDICATE THAT BATTER PILES AND GROUPS CONTAINING BATTER PILES UNDERGO LARGE AMOUNTS OF LATERAL DEFLECTION EVEN WHEN SUBJECTED TO VERTICAL LOADS ONLY. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF PILE GROUP FOUNDATIONS PRESENTED IN THE PREVIOUS REPORTS, RESEARCH REPORT 69-2 (AUG. 1969) AND RESEARCH REPORT 70-1 (JUNE 1970), HAS BEEN VERIFIED WITH THE RESULTS FROM THIS FULL-SCALE LATERAL LOAD TESTS. /FHWA/

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C62023415

File Reference: FHWA S0197

Title: THE BENDING OF LONG H-SECTION PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Hanna, TH

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Canadian Good Roads Association

Publication Title: Canadian Geotechnical Journal

Abstract Information

Abstract: DURING A PILE-TESTING PROGRAM AT THE SITE OF ONTARIO HYDRO'S NEW LAMBTON GENERATING STATION, THREE H-SECTION PILES WERE INSTRUMENTED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THEY DROVE STRAIGHT AND WERE SUBSEQUENTLY LOAD TESTED. VERY LARGE DEFLECTIONS THAT OCCURED ABOVE THE WEAK AXIS OF THE PILES WERE MEASURED. THE PRACTICAL IMPLICATION OF PILE BENDING DICUSSED, AND A GENERAL HYPOTHESIS IS PUT FORWARD TO EXPLAIN PILE BENDING. /CGRA/

Supplementary notes: Vol 5, No 3, PP150-172, 15 FIG, 2 TAB, 17 REF, 1 APP

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C62051641

Title: FOUNDATIONS OF BRIDGES AND OTHER STRUCTURES

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Highway Research Information Service

Abstract Information

Abstract: THESE REFERENCES ON FOUNDATIONS OF BRIDGES AND OTHER STRUCTURES INCLUDE SELECTIONS ON APPLICATION OF ELASTICITY AND PLASTICITY THEORIES TO FOUNDATION PROBLEMS, SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING, CEMENT GROUTING OF FOUNDATIONS, STRAIN GAGE OPERATIONS UNDER WATER, EARTH PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS, BEARING CAPACITY OF DOUNDATIONS, FOUNDATION VIBRATIONS, APPROXIMATIONS FOR BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS, STRESSES UNDER A FOUNDATION, FOUNDATION MOVEMENTS, PILE FOUNDATIONS AND PILE STRUCTURES, EFFICIENCIES OF PILE GROUPS, BEARING CAPACITY OF PILES, PILE LOAD TESTS, PREDETERMINING PILE LENGTHS, PRESSURE DISTRUBITION ALONG FRICTION PILES, SKIN FRICTION OF FOUNDATION PILE, PILE DRIVING BY ELECTROOSMOSIS AND BY VIBRATION STRESSES IN PILES DURING DRIVING, DRIVING CHARACTERISTICS OF PILES IN SOIL, EXPERIENCES WITH PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES, STEEL H-B PILES, SHEET STEEL PILES, TIMBER PILES, SOIL MODULUS FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES, STABILITY OF FOUNDATION PILE AGAINST BUCKLING UNDER AXIAL LOAD, PILE HEAVE AND REDRIVING, FREEZING FACILITATES SHAFT SINKING, DEFLECTION AND STRENGTH OF ANCHORED BULKHEADS, SEALING A COFFERDAM, CAISSON FOUNDATIONS BELLED CAISSONS ANCHOR WALLS, BRIDGE PIERS BUILT IN CELLULAR COFFERDAMS, ENGINEERING SEISMOLOGY, LATERAL FORCES OF EARTHQUAKE AND WIND, SCOUR AT BRIDGES, SUBSOIL CORROSION OF STEEL, SOIL CONDITIONS AND SAMPLING, TESTS OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS, SUBWAY CONSTRUCTION, SOIL COMPACTION BY VIBROFLOTATION AND BY EXPLOSIVES, BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXCAVATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS, CONSTRUCTION OF CUT-OFF WALLS, UNDERWATER CONCRETING, AND SETTLEMENT OF STRUCTURES.

Supplementary notes: 14 Pp, 222 REF

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3B62096106

Title: BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY-LOADED PILES IN COHESIVE SOIL

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Prakash, S

Saran, D

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Road Research Laboratory /UK/

Publication Title: Asian Conf Soil Mech & Fdn E Proc /Is/

Abstract Information

Abstract: AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE, BY MEANS OF ALUMINUM MODEL TESTS, TO PREDICT THE BEHAVIOR OF A GROUP OF PILES LATERALLY LOADED FROM A SINGLE PILE. 4-PILE AND 9-PILE GROUPS WERE TESTED IN COHESIVE SOIL, EACH OF THEM BEING COMPARED WITH A SINGLE PILE. THE DEFLECTION AND THE ROTATION OF THE PILE CAR WERE MEASURED AFTER EACH LOAD INCREMENT, AND THE BEHAVIOR OF THE GROUPS UNDER TOP RESTRAINT WAS CORRELATED WITH THAT OF THE SINGLE PILE WITH FREE HEAD. TESTS WITH DIFFERENT PILE SPACING IN EACH GROUP YIELDED THE SPACING LIMIT FOR THE GROUP EFFECT. /RRL/AUTHOR/

Supplementary notes: Vol 1, pp 235-238, 6 FIG, 1 TAB, 2 PHOT, 13 REF

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3C62146963

Title: CALCULATION OF FOOTINGS ON COMPRESSIBLE FOUNDATION BEDS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Egorov, KE

Simvulidi, IA

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Publication Title: Soil Mech & Fdn Eng Conf Proc /Mexico/

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE CALCULATION OF CIRCULAR AND STRIP FOUNDATIONS IS DISCUSSED. THE RIGID CIRCULAR SLAB IS IN CONTACT WITH AN ELASTIC LAYER RESTING ON A NON-COMPRESIBLE BED. FORMULAS HAVE BEEN DERIVED FOR CALCULATING EXTERNAL VERTICAL LOADS DISTRIBUTED OVER THE CIRCULAR SLAB. THE DEFLECTION OF THE SLAB DEPENDS ON THE THICKNESS OF THE COMPRESSIBLE LAYER. AN EXAMPLE IS GIVEN OF PILE FOUNDATION GRILLAGE RESTING ON SEPARATE IMMOBILE POINTS (PILES) AND AT THE SAME TIME ON THE LAYER BETWEEN THE PILES. THE PILE FOUNDATION GRILLAGE IS TREATED AS A NON-UNIFORM CONTINUOUS BEAM RESTING ON PILES. IN THIS METHOD THE CONTINUOUS BEAM IS TREATED AS IF IT CONSISTED OF A NUMBER OF SINGLE UNIFORM BEAMS RESTING ON A COMPRESSIBLE LAYER. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES SHOW THAT, BY TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE REACTION OF THE SOIL UNDER THE PILE FOUNDATION GRILLAGE, IT IS POSSIBLE TO OBTAIN A MORE ECONOMICAL SOLUTION TO THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES. /RRL/

Supplementary notes: pp 77-84, 3 FIG, 3 TAB, 9 REF

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3C62149361

Title: CLOSURE ON SHEET PILE ANALYSIS BY DISTRIBUTION THEORY

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Turabi, DA

Balla, A

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics Division

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE WRITERS AGREE WITH RAUHUT THAT LINEAR IDEALIZATION OF SOIL RESPONSE BY FIVE SPRINGS BELOW DREDGE LEVEL IN FACT DEPENDS ON MANY FACTORS, BUT IT IS A CONVENIENT ASSUMPTION TO GIVE RESULTS IN GENERAL AGREEMENT WITH EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS. THEY ARE PLEASED TO NOTE THE CLOSE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CALCULATED RESULTS OF THEIR DISTRIBUTION METHOD AND THOSE OBTAINED BY THE COMPUTER PROGRAM. THEY ACKNOWLEDGE AN ERROR CORRECTION AND AGREE THAT FULL ADVANTAGE SHOULD BE TAKEN OF THE COMPUTER, BUT EMPHASIZE THAT THE COMPUTER SHOULD BE USED AS A TOOL TO LIGHTEN THE BURDEN OF COMPUTATIONAL WORK WITHOUT RESTRICTING THE ENGINEER'S FREEDOM TO EXPLORE NEW METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND APPROACH. IN THE DISTRIBUTION THEORY FOR SHEET PILE WALLS THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS INFLUENCING FACTORS, SUCH AS PILE FLEXIBILITY, POSITION AND ANCHOR YIELD, DEPTH OF PENETRATION, ETC., ARE ANALYZED IN A RELATIVELY SIMPLE MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT. ALTHOUGH ROWE QUESTIONED THE REPRESENTATION OF THE SOIL MEDIUM BELOW THE DREDGE LEVEL BY ONLY FIVE SPRINGS, EXCELLENT AGREEMENT WAS REACHED BY RAUHUT AND THE WRITERS' METHOD USING FIVE SPRINGS AND THE COMPUTER. THE WRITERS CONCLUDE THAT THE APPLICATION OF AN ACTIVE PRESSURE BELOW THE DREDGE LEVEL, AS APPLIED BY ROWE, IS NOT JUSTIFIABLE BECAUSE THE CHANGE IN THE HORIZONTAL PRESSURE WOULD BE NEGLIGIBLE SINCE DREDGING WILL UNLOAD THE SOIL BELOW THE DREDGE LEVEL AND THE VERTICAL PRESSURE WILL DECREASE BECOMING ZERO AT THE DREDGE LEVEL. IT CAN BE ASSUMED THAT MERE REMOVAL OF EARTH MASS WOULD LEAVE THE HORIZONTAL PRESSURE ACTING FROM THE LEFT- AND RIGHT-HAND SIDE OF THE SHEET PILE NEARLY EQUAL. HOWEVER, DEFLECTION OF THE SHEET PILE AFTER DREDGING WILL CAUSE CONSIDERABLE CHANGE. ASSUMING ELASTIC SUPPORTS, THE CHANGE OF HORIZONTAL PRESSURE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE DEFLECTION, AND CONSEQUENTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRESSURE DIFFERENCE, WHICH IS THE ACTUAL LOAD. THEREFORE, THERE IS NO NEED TO ASSUME ANY FURTHER ADDITIONAL LOAD SUCH AS WAS ASSUMED BY ROWE BELOW THE DREDGE LEVEL. REFERENCES: SHEET-PILE ANALYSIS BY DISTRIBUTION THEORY, DAFALLA A. TURABI, ARPAD BALLA, ASCE PROC. PAPER 5769, JAN. 1968.

Supplementary notes: Vol 96, No SM1, PP 295-297

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P62209522

File Reference: HRIS 62 089900

Title: DEFLECTIONS OF SHALLOW PIER FOUNDATIONS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Slack, DC

Walker, JN

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics Division

Publication Date: 7/00/70 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE USE OF SHALLOW PIER FOUNDATIONS FOR RIGID FRAME STRUCTURES REQUIRES THAT THE DESIGNER OF THE STRUCTURE BE ABLE TO PREDICT ANY LATERAL SPREADING OF THE FOUNDATION SO THAT THE FRAME MAY BE DESIGNED TO ACCOMODATE ANY MOMENT CHANGES DUE TO THE SPREADING. AVAILABLE PROCEDURES HAVE NOT ADEQUATELY DEFINED THE PRINCIPAL VARIABLES AND NO STANDARD PROCEDURE HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR EVALUATING THE HORIZONTAL COEFFICIENT OF SUBGRADE REACTION. A MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIP, BASED ON THE THEORY OF BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS, IS FORMULATED FOR PREDICTING THE DEFLECTION OF SHALLOW PIERS SUBJECTED TO HORIZONTAL FORCES NEAR THE GROUND LINE. THE COEFFICIENT OF HORIZONTAL SUBGRADE REACTION FOR USE IN THE RELATIONSHIP WAS DETERMINED BY "IN-SITU" TESTS AND RELATED TO PIER SIZE BY THEORY OF ELASTICITY. RESULTS OF DEFLECTION TESTS ON FULL SCALE PIERS ARE PRESENTED AND COMPARED TO PREDICTED DEFLECTIONS. THE COMPARISON INDICATES CLOSE AGREEMENT BETWEEN ACTUAL AND PREDICTED DEFLECTIONS. /ASCE/

Supplementary notes: Vol 96, No SM4, PROC PAPER 7391, PP 1143-1157, 5 FIG, 6 TAB,

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P62212442

Title: ANALYSIS AND FULL SCALE LATERAL LOAD TESTS: PILE GROUP FOUNDATIONS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kim, JB

Publication Information:

Publication Date: 7/00/73 Pagination: 163 pp

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Bucknell University

/Dept of Civil Eng

Abstract Information

Abstract: LATERAL LOAD TESTS WERE PERFORMED ON THREE GROUPS OF SIX PILES EACH AND TWO ISOLATED SINGLE PILES (ONE VERTICAL AND ONE BATTER). TWO GROUPS HAD VERTICAL PILES, ONE GROUP WITH FOUR-FOOT SPACING AND ONE GROUP WITH THREE-FOOT SPACING. THE THIRD GROUP ALSO HAD THREE-FOOT SPACING, BUT FOUR OF THE PILES WERE BATTERED TO A SLOPE OF 3.5 TO 1. THE LOADING SEQUENCE WAS INTENDED TO SIMULATE THAT OF BRIDGE ABUTMENT FOUNDATIONS. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT EACH PILE IN A GROUP HAVING FOUR-FOOT SPACING HAS A LATERAL LOAD RESISTANCE APPROXIMATELY 4.3 TIMES THAT OF A SINGLE VERTICAL PILE, WHILE FOR A GROUP HAVING THREE-FOOT SPACING THE INCREASE IN LATERAL CAPACITY IS ONLY BY A FACTOR OF 2.2. THE RESULTS ALSO INDICATE THAT BATTER PILES AND GROUPS CONTAINING BATTER PILES UNDERGO LARGE AMOUNTS OF LATERAL DEFLECTION EVEN WHEN SUBJECTED TO VERTICAL LOADS ONLY. /DOT/

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P62235270

Title: DISCUSSION ON MODEL STUDY OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

El-ghamry, OA DISCUSSER

Fang, H DISCUSSER

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics Division

Publication Date: 4/00/71 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE AUTHORS HAVE PRESENTED INTERESTING INFORMATION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF SINGLE PILES AND PILE GROUPS UNDER AXIAL AND LATERAL LOADING. THE ANALYSIS WAS BASED UPON AN EQUATION CORRELATING THE MEASURED DEFLECTION WITH THE APPLIED LOAD AT GROUND SURFACE. THE EQUATION INCLUDED ONE DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETER IN THE CASE OF A SINGLE PILE, AND TWO DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS IN THE CASE OF A PILE GROUP CONNECTED WITH A SLAB. IT WAS STATED THAT THESE PARAMETERS DEPEND UPON THE RATIO OF THE EMBEDDED LENGTH TO THE RELATIVE STIFFNESS. THE WRITERS BELIEVE THESE VALUES MIGHT ALSO DEPEND UPON THE SCALE OF THE MODEL. IF TWO SYSTEMS (MODEL AND PROTOTYPE) ARE CONSIDERED, THE FORM OF THE EQUATION MIGHT CHANGE CONSIDERABLY WITH THE SCALE. IN THE CASE OF GROUP PILES, THE PROBLEM OF DEDUCING SIMILARITY PARAMETERS COULD BE SOLVED BY APPLYING TWO RELATIONSHIPS CONTINUED IN THE DISCUSSION. IT MIGHT BE OF INTEREST TO STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF PILES AND PILE GROUPS UNDER STRATIFIED SOIL CONDITIONS. THE ASSUMPTION OF TRIANGULAR VARIATION OF SUBGRADE MODULUS WITH RESPECT TO DEPTH MIGHT BE MODIFIED; A MODIFIED HRENNIKOFF METHOD OF ANALYSIS SHOULD BE DERIVED FOR THIS CASE. /DISCUSSER/

Supplementary notes: Vol 97, No SM4, PP 700-701

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P63216939

File Reference: HRIS 63 217268

Title: LATERAL LOAD TESTS ON PILES - ARKANSAS RIVER PROJECT

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Alizadeh, M

Davisson, MT

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics Division

Publication Date: 9/00/70 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: FIELD LATERAL LOAD TESTS WERE MADE ON A VARIETY OF PILES DRIVEN WITH DIFFERENT HAMMERS TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PILE FOUNDATIONS IN SAND FOR LOCKS AND DAMS OF THE LOWER ARKANSAS RIVER. THE INVESTIGATION INCLUDED DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PILE BATTER, REPETITIVE LOAD, JETTING AND PREJETTING, AND DENSIFICATION OF THE FOUNDATION SOILS ON THE FLEXURAL AND LATERAL LOAD-DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUAL PILES. THE PILE TESTS SHOWED THAT: (1) TRIANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF MODULUS OF HORIZONTAL SUBGRADE REACTION NH WITH RESPECT TO DEPTH IS A GOOD APPROXIMATION; (2) COEFFICIENT NH IS DEPENDENT ON THE PILE DEFLECTION; (3) REPETITIVE LOADING INCREASES TOTAL DEFLECTION AT A GIVEN LOAD LEVEL BY ABOUT 100%; (4) FOR A GIVEN LATERAL LOAD, FULLY JETTED PILES DEFLECT 20% TO 50% MORE THAN UNJETTED PILES; (5) DENSIFICATION OF THE FOUNDATION SANDS INCREASES NH VALUE BY ABOUT 100%; AND (6) THE LATERAL LOAD CAPACITY OF A PILE IS ESSENTIALLY INDEPENDENT OF THE HAMMER USED TO DRIVE THE PILE. /ASCE/

Supplementary notes: Vol 96, No SM 5, PROC PAPER 7510, PP 1583 - 1604, 10 FIG, 4

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3P63217267

Title: MODEL STUDY OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Davisson, MT

Salley, JR

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics Division

Publication Date: 9/00/70 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: TEST ON SCALED MODELS OF LOCKS AND DAMS USED IN THE ARKANSAS RIVER NAVIGATION PROJECT WERE PERFORMED TO DEVELOP DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PILE FOUNDATIONS IN SAND. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LATERAL LOAD-DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF ISOLATED SINGLE PILES AND GROUPS OF PILES SCALED AFTER THE PROTOTYPE FOUNDATIONS WERE DETERMINED. THE FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF THE PILES WAS ALSO INVESTIGATED. THE SUBGRADE MODULUS APPLICABLE TO PILES IN SAND WAS SHOWN TO INCREASE LINEARLY WITH RESPECT TO DEPTH. CYCLIC LOADING CAUSED THE MAGNITUDE OF DEFLECTION FOR A GIVEN LOAD LEVEL TO DOUBLE, APPROXIMATELY. HRENNIKOFF'S METHOD OF ANALYZING GROUPS OF PILES WAS EXPERIMENTALLY VERIFIED AFTER THE EFFECTS OF PILE GROUP BEHAVIOR AND VARIATION OF SUBGRADE MODULUS WITH RESPECT TO DEPTH WERE ACCOUNTED FOR. DEFLECTION OF A PILE GROUP FOR A GIVEN LOAD INCREASED AS THE PILE SPACING DECREASED BELOW APPROXIMATELY EIGHT PILE WIDTHS, INDICATING A REDUCED SUBGRADE MODULUS. A RELATIONSHIP WAS DETERMINED BETWEEN PILE SPACING AND THE MAGNITUDE OF REDUCTION IN THE SUBGRADE MODULUS. /ASCE/

Supplementary notes: Vol 96, No SM 5, PROC PAPER 7511, PP 1605 - 1627, 12 FIG, 1

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3P63217268

Title: DISCUSSION ON LATERAL LOAD TESTS ON PILES: ARKANSAS RIVER PROJECT

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Pise, PJ DISCUSSER

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of Soil Mechanics Division

Publication Date: 5/00/71 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE AUTHORS HAVE REPORTED FULL-SCALE FIELD TESTS ON BATTER AND VERTICAL PILES OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS AND HAVE PRESENTED THE METHOD OF EVALUATING THE COEFFICIENT OF HORIZONTAL SUBGRADE REACTION. THE WRITER HAS RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE GOOD AGREEMENT BETWEEN MEASURED AND COMPUTED MOMENTS ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT K = X (N SUB H). ACCORDING TO WINKLER'S HYPOTHESIS, K = P/Y AT ANY DEPTH ALONG THE PILE. AS THE AUTHORS HAVE MEASURED THE BENDING MOMENTS WITH DEPTH IT IS POSSIBLE TO EVALUATE DEFLECTION, SOIL REACTION, AND SOIL MODULUS ALONG THE DEPTH OF A PILE USING THE SOIL-PILE INTERACTION EQUATION, I.E., THE BEAM ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION EQUATION WITH PROPER END CONDITIONS. THIS CAN PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY THE VARIATIONS OF SOIL MODULUS WITH DEPTH. EVEN THE SLIGHTEST VARIATION IN BENDING MOMENT VALUES ALONG THE DEPTH RESULTS IN LARGE VARIATION OF SOIL REACTIONS COMPARED TO THE DEFLECTIONS AND, IN TURN, IN SOIL MODULUS. THE WRITER HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO STUDY THE DEFLECTION, SOIL REACTIONS, ETC. ALONG THE DEPTHS OF MODEL PILES FROM BENDING MOMENTS OBSERVED. TO ANALYZE THE DATA, SEVERAL POLYNOMIALS OF DIFFERENT DEGREES WERE USED TO PASS THROUGH THE BENDING MOMENTS BY LEAST SQUARE METHOD AND A COMPUTER PROGRAM WAS ARRANGED TO GET THE VALUES OF FITTED BENDING MOMENTS, DEFLECTION, SOIL REACTIONS, ETC. IN A CONTINUOUS PROCESS. THE WRITER'S EXPERIMENTS SHOWED THAT N SUB H WOULD DEPEND UPON SOIL DENSITY, MAGNITUDE OF VERTICAL AND LATERAL LOADS, AND LOCATION OF THE PILE CONCERNED IN RELATION TO THE GROUP AND THAT IT WOULD GO ON DECREASING AS THE DEFLECTION INCREASES. /AUTHOR/

Supplementary notes: Vol 97, No SM 5, PROC PAPER 8083, PP 811-813, 1 TAB, 1 REF

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P63217471

File Reference: HRIS 63 217267

Title: COMPARISON OF SINGLE-AND MULTIPLE-UNDERREAMED BORED PILES BASED ON

LABORATORY AND FIELD EXPERIMENTS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Clisby, MB

Mattox, RM

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Highway Research Record, Hwy Res Board

Publication Date: 0/00/71 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: BORED PILES ARE USED EXTENSIVELY TO MEET FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS IN SOME SOILS. THE MAXIMUM DIAMETER OF THE BELLING TOOL FOR UNDERREAMING IS LIMITED TO APROXIMATELY 3 TIMES THE DIAMETER OF THE SHAFT. THIS LIMITATION CAUSES AN UNECONOMICAL DESIGN IN SOME SOILS BECAUSE OF THE RESULTING LOW STRESS IN THE CONCRETE OF THE SHAFT. AN INCREASE IN THE AREA OF THAT PORTION OF THE PILE IN POINT-BEARING INCREASES THE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE PILE. A METHOD OF INCREASING THIS EFFECTIVE AREA IS TO CUT A BELL AT OTHER LOCATIONS ALONG THE SHAFT OF THE PILE, IN ADDITION TO THE BELL AT THE POINT. THE LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS THAT WERE PERFORMED SO THAT THE LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE-UNDERREAMED BORED PILES COULD BE DETERMINED ARE DESCRIBED. BELL SPACINGS AND FAILURE PLANES IN THE SOIL OF THE MODEL PILES WERE STUDIED EXTENSIVELY. THE RESULTS OF THE MODEL TESTS WERE USED IN THE TEST DESIGN OF THE FILED PILES. AN ANALYSIS OF ALL FIELD TEST RESULTS WAS MADE BY USING THE FULL AREA OF BOTH THE BELL IN POINT-BEARING AND PERIMETER OF THE SHAFT IN SKIN FRICTION. CALCULATED LOAD- DEFLECTION BEHAVIOR USING THESE ASSUMPTIONS COMPARE REASONABLY WELL WITH THE LOAD-DEFLECTION VALUES OBTAINED BY EXPERIMENTATION. MULTIPLE BELLING OF CAST- IN-PLACE PILES CAN RESULT IN ECONOMICAL DESIGN FOR MANY SOIL CONDITIONS. /AUTHOR/

Supplementary notes: No 354, pp 80-89, 14 FIG, 3 TAB

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3C63220055

Title: BEARING CAPACITY OF CYCLICALLY LOADED PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Broms, BB

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Swedish Geotech Inst Reprints & Repts

Volume: Number: 44

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 1-16

Figures: 12 Fig Tables: 5 Tab Photos:

References: Refs Appendices:

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE BEARING CAPACITY OF DRIVEN PRECAST CONCRETE AND TIMBER PILES HAS BEEN INVESTIGATED AT FOUR DIFFERENT TEST SITES IN SWEDEN (UPPSALA I, UPPSALA II, BJOERKTORP, AND GULLBERGSMOTET). THE PILES WERE DRIVEN INTO A DEEP LAYER OF NORMALLY CONSOLIDATED CLAY AND SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LOADS AT SUCCESSIVELY HIGHER LOAD LEVELS. THE TEST WAS TERMINATED AT THE LOAD LEVEL AT WHICH THE DEFLECTION INCREMENT FROM EACH LOAD CYCLES STRATED TO INCREASE. THIS LOAD LEVEL IS DEFINED HEREIN AS THE CRITICAL LOAD. IT IS CONSIDERED THAT A PILE CAN RESIST AN INDEFINITE NUMBER OF LOAD CYCLES WITHOUT FAILURE IF THE INTENSITY OF THE CYCLIC LOADING IS LESS THAN THE CRITICAL LOAD. THE MEASURED CRITICAL LOADS WERE COMPARED WITH CALCULATED VALUES FOR EACH SITE. /AUTHOR/

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3P63224403

Title: LATERAL LOADS ON PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Evans, JR

Hummel, PL

Publication Information:

Volume: Number: 2-r2

Report No: Final Rep

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 9/00/72 Pagination: 56 pp

Figures: 25 Fig Tables: 18 Tab Photos:

References: 6 Ref Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Hawaii University

/Dept of Civil Eng

Abstract Information

Abstract: VERTICAL PILES AND PILES LOADED AGAINST THE BATTER EXHIBIT ABOUT THE SAME ALLOWABLE LATERAL LOAD CAPACITY WHETHER THE CRITERIA FOR SELECTION BE DEFLECTION, MAXIMUM MOMENT, OR ULTIMATE CAPACITY. THE SOIL-PILE CAPABILITY OF PILES LOADED WITH THE BATTER IS LESS THAN THE CAPACITY OF THE TWO CASES LISTED ABOVE, BUT WOULD HAVE AN ADVANTAGE WHEN VERTICAL LOADS ARE ACTING DUE TO THE MORE FAVORABLE RELATIONSHIP OF THE COMPONENTS NORMAL TO THE PILE. PILES DRIVEN IN GROUPS CAN EFFECTIVELY DEVELOP TWICE THE CAPACITY OF SINGLE PILES, AT THE SAME DEFLECTION AND SMALLER VALUES OF MAXIMUM MOMENT, FOR CUSTOMARY PILE SPACING, PROVIDED THAT ADEQUATE REINFORCEMENT IS AVAILABLE TO MINIMIZE PILE BUTT ROTATION.

Supplementary notes: Contract NO: 11485

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P63230302

Title: LOAD-DEFLECTION PREDICTION FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Report No: R&d Rept

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/73 Pagination: 54 pp

Figures: 26 Fig Tables: 6 Tab Photos:

References: 25 Ref Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Sydney University /Australia/

/School of Civ Eng

Abstract Information

Abstract: SERIES OF SOLUTIONS ARE PRESENTED IN GRAPHICAL FORM WHICH ENABLE THE LOAD-DEFLECTION BEHAVIOR TO FAILURE OF A LATERALLY-LOADED PILE TO BE CALCULATED. AN ECCENTRICALLY- LOADED FREE-HEAD FLOATING PILE IS CONSIDERED FOR TWO CASES, A SOIL WITH CONSTANT YOUNG'S MODULUS AND YIELD PRESSURE, AND A SOIL HAVING A YOUNG'S MODULUS AND YIELD PRESSURE WHICH INCREASE LINEARLY WITH DEPTH. THE EFFECTS OF SOIL YIELD ARE FOUND TO BE VERY SIGNIFICANT FOR RELATIVELY FLEXIBLE PILES. GOOD AGREEMENT IS FOUND BETWEEN THE MEASURED LOAD-DEFLECTION CURVES FOR A SERIES OF TESTS ON MODEL PILES IN CLAY AND THOSE PREDICTED FROM THE THEORETICAL CURVES, USING A VALUE OF YOUNG'S MODULUS OF ABOUT 400 CU IN THE ANALYSIS. REASONABLE AGREEMENT IS ALSO FOUND FOR A REPORTED SERIES OF FIELD TESTS ON LARGE-SCALE PILES. A SIMPLE APPROACH IS ALSO DESCRIBED FOR UTILIZING THE SOLUTIONS FOR SINGLE PILES TO OBTAIN APPROXIMATE LOAD-DEFLECTION CURVES FOR PILE GROUPS. /AUTHOR/

Supplementary notes: RES REPT NO R208

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 2C63235340

File Reference: IRRD 207 437

Title: LATERAL LOADING OF FREESTANDING AND FIXED-HEADED PILES EMBEDDED IN

ELASTIC C-TYPE AND S-TYPE SOILS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Leijden, W

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Publication Title: Fifth Eur Conf On Soil Proc /Sp/

Report No: Conf Paper

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 365-72

Figures: 2 Fig Tables: 8 Tab Photos:

References: 5 Ref Appendices:

Abstract Information

Abstract: A BRIEF DERIVATION IS GIVEN OF THE FORMULAE APPLICABLE FOR LATERAL LOADING OF PILES PLACED IN SOILS HAVING A MODULUS OF SOIL-REACTION WHICH IS CONSTANT WITH DEPTH (C-TYPE) AND IN SOILS SHOWING A MODULUS INCREASING IN LINEAR RELATION WITH DEPTH (S-TYPE). COMPARISON IS MADE WITH LOADING OF BEAMS DEIGN RIGIDLY FIXED AT THE BOTTOM. EQUIVALENT FIXATION DEPTHS ARE STATED AND ERRORS INVOLVED ARE LISTED. GRAPHS ARE GIVEN OF MAXIMUM MOMENT AND MAXIMUM DEFLECTION VERSUS SOIL PROPERTIES FOR VARYING PILE RIGIDITES IN CASES OF C- AND S-TYPE OF SOILS. A SCHEMATIC DRAWING SHOWS EQUIVALENT FIXATION DEPTHS WITH CORRESPONDING MAXIMUM ERRORS FOR VARYING HEIGHTS OF LOAD APPLICATION. SEE ALSO IRRD ABSTRACT NO. 100334.

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C63235532

File Reference: IRRD 201373

Title: INTERPRETATION OF PILE TESTS UNDER LATERAL LOAD AT LACORUNA 3RD OIL PIER

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Rimana, M

Oteo, CS

Fernandez-aller, A

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Real Estate Research Corp, St. Paul

Publication Title: Fifth Eur Conf On Soil Proc /Sp/

Report No: Conf Paper

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 413-22

Figures: 9 Fig Tables: 2 Tab Photos: 1 Phot

References: 7 Ref Appendices:

Abstract Information

Abstract: TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS ARISING DURING THE DESIGN OF AN OIL PIER OF 120.000 TPM, THREE BENDING TESTS WERE CONDUCTED ON PILE - 54" DIAMETER 30 AND 40M LONG. THE TESTING WAS CARRIED OUT ON THE EXTREME AND MIDDLE POINTS OF THE PIER. TEST AND DATA INTERPRETATION ARE DESCRIBED: (A) BY ELASTIC METHODS ON THE INTEGRATION OF MINDLIN'S EQUATION FOR A PILE GROUP, (B) BY PLASTIC METHODS AS AN EXTENSION OF BLUM;S METHOD. ALTERNATING LOADS WERE APPLIED DURING THE TESTING. THIS CAN BE CONSIDERED DURING THE CALCULATIONS AS AN INCREMENT IN THE FREE LENGTH OF THE PILE. BOTH WAYS LEAD TO SIMILAR SAFETY FACTORS AND ALLOW AN APPROPRIATE ANALYSIS OF DESIGN NEEDS. SEE ALSO IRRD ABSTRACT NO. 100334.

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C63235534

File Reference: IRRD 201377

Title: ANALYSIS OF HORIZONTAL LOAD TESTS TO CLARIFY THE LATERAL BEARING VALUE OF LARGE DIAMETER BORED PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Weingold, H

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Publication Title: Fifth Eur Conf On Soil Proc /Sp/

Report No: Conf Paper

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 433-41

Figures: 8 Fig Tables: 3 Tab Photos: 5 Phot

References: 13 Ref Appendices:

Abstract Information

Abstract: THIS REPORT REPRESENTS ONE OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS WHICH ARE STILL NECESSARY FOR THE CLARIFICATION OF THE LATERAL BEARING CAPACITY OF PILES. AFTER REFERRING TO OTHER EXPERIMENTS ON LARGE DIAMETER BORED PILES. THE EXECUTION AND ANLAYSIS OF A BEARING TEST TO A HORIZONTAL LOAD OF 130 T IS REPORTED. THE TEST RESULTS ARE RECOMPUTED BY MEANS OF A DESIGN METHOD WHICH IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE THEORY OF NORIZONTAL SUBGRADE REACTION. THE BLUM THEORY FOR DOLPHINS IS USED FOR COMPARISON. THE APPLICATION OF THE MODULUA OF HORIZONTAL SUBGRADE REACTION FOR THE COMPUTATION OF DEFLECTIONS, BENDING MOMENTS AND SOIL REACTIONS HAS PROVED VERY SUITABLE. THE RESULTS HOWEVER ARE MORE SENSITIVE TO THE CHANGE OF HORIZONTAL SUBGRADE REACTION VALUE THAN THEORETICALLY EXPECTED. SOIL MECHANIC INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE SOIL MODULUS OF HORIZONTAL SUBGRADE REACTION BY MEANS OF HORIZONTAL PLATE LOAD TESTS AND THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLATE SIZE ARE DISCUSSED. RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES. SEE ALSO IRRD ABSTRACT NO. 100334.

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C63235535

Title: THE EFFECT OF BOND BETWEEN SOIL AND LATERALLY LOADED PILE GROUPS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Brandl, H

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Publication Title: Fifth Eur Conf On Soil Proc /Sp/

Report No: Conf Paper

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 333-7

Figures: 3 Fig Tables: Photos:

References: 1 Ref Appendices:

Abstract Information

Abstract: BASED ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BOND BETWEEN SOIL AND ROUGH PILES, A METHOD OF CALCULATING LATERALLY PILE GROUPS ('BAR WALLS') IS PRESENTED. THE BAR WALLS CONSIST OF THIN PILES WITH A HIGH SKIN FRICTION, USUALLY ANCHORED. THE EFFECT OF THE BOND IS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT BY ASSUMING A COMMON NEUTRAL AXIS FOR THE WHOLE UNDERPINNING SYSTEM. THUS THE MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT CAN BE REDUCED BY A SEMI-EMPIRICAL FACTOR WHICH INDICATES THE INTENSITY OF BOND WITHIN THE WALL. THE REST OF THE BENDING MOMENT IS TRANSFORMED INTO INNER AXIAL LOADS (EQUAL COMPRESSIVE AND TENSILE FORCES). SEE ALSO IRRD ABSTRACT NO. 100334.

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C63235536

File Reference: IRRD 201370

Title: THE BEHAVIOR OF LATERAL LOADED PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Colman, RB

Hancock, TG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Publication Title: Fifth Eur Conf On Soil Proc /Sp/

Report No: Conf Paper

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 339-45

Figures: 6 Fig Tables: 2 Tab Photos:

Abstract Information

Abstract: LATERAL LOADING TESTS WERE CARRIED OUT ON THREE PAIRS OF PILES DRIVEN THROUGH SWAMP DEPOSITS. THE STRATA CONSISTED OF SAND FILL ON SOFT PEAT AND CLAY OVERLAYING SANDS AND FIRM CLAYS. THE TESTS WERE LOCATED WHERE THERE WERE THREE MARKEDLY DIFFERENT THICKNESSES OF FILL AND PEAT. THE PAIRS OF PILES WERE LOADED VERTICALLY AND THEN UNRESTRAINED AGAINST TOP ROTATION LOADED HORIZONTALLY. HORIZONTAL MOVEMENTS AND ANGULAR ROTATIONS WERE MEASURED. TEST NO. 3 WAS REPEATED WITH THE PILES JOINED TOGETHER BY A PILE CAP AND THEREBY RESTRAINED AGAINST ANGULAR ROTATION. IN-SITU AND LABORATORY TESTS WERE CARRIED OUT TO DETERMINE THE LOAD DEFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOILS. THE TESTS SHOWED THAT THE UPPER SAND LAYER WAS PREDOMINANT IN DETERMINING THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE PILES WHATEVER THE DEPTH OF HIGHLY COMPRESSIBLE MATERIAL UNDER THE SAND. TEST NO. 3 SHOWED THAT FIXING THE TOPS OF THE PILES AGAINST ROTATION REDUCED HORIZONTAL MOVEMENTS BY ABOUT 40%. THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE PILES WAS FOUND TO BE CONSISTENT WITH DAVISSON AND GILL'S (1963) THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES IN A TWO LAYER SYSTEM. SEE IRRD ABSTRACT NO. 100334.

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C63235537

File Reference: IRRD 201 371

Title: LATERAL LOADING OF FREESTANDING AND FIXED-HEADED PILES EMBEDDED IN ELASTIC C-TYPE AND S-TYPE SOILS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Leijden, W

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Publication Title: Fifth Eur Conf On Soil Proc /Sp/

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 365-72

Figures: 2 Fig Tables: 8 Tab Photos:

References: 5 RefAppendices:

Abstract Information

Abstract: A BRIEF DERIVATION IS GIVEN OF THE FORMULAE APPLICABLE FOR LATERAL LOADING OF PILES PLACED IN SOILS HAVING A MODULUS OF SOIL-REACTION WHICH IS CONSTANT WITH DEPTH (C-TYPE) AND IN SOILS SHOWING A MODULUS INCREASING IN LINEAR RELATION WITH DEPTH (S-TYPE). A COMPARISON IS MADE WITH LOADING OF BEAMS BEING RIGIDLY FIXED AT THE BOTTOM. EQUIVALENT FIXATION DEPTHS ARE STATED, AND ERRORS INVOLVED ARE LISTED. GRAPHS ARE GIVEN OF MAXIMUM MOMENT AND MAXIMUM DEFLECTION VERSUS SOIL PROPERTIES FOR VARYING PILE RIGIDITIES IN CASES OF C- AND S-TYPE OF SOILS. A SCHEMATIC DRAWING SHOWS EQUIVALENT FIXATION DEPTHS WITH CORRESPONDING MAXIMUM ERRORS FOR VARYING HEIGHTS OF LOAD APPLICATION. /TRRL/

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 4C63301373

Title: EARTH PRESSURES ON FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES (STATE OF THE ART REPORT)

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Bjerrum, L

Frimann, LJ

Has, M

Duncan, JM

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport & Road Research Lab /UK/

Volume: Number: 91

Report No: R&d Rept

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/72 Pagination: pp 1-28

Figures: 17 Fig Tables: 4 Tab Photos:

References: 98 Ref Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Norwegian Geotechnical Inst

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF EARTH PRESSURE ON SHEET PILE WALLS AND EXCAVATION BRACING SYSTEMS IS DESCRIBED WITH A VIEW TO DEVELOPING AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF THE FACTORS GOVERNING THE MAGNITUDE AND DISTRIBUTION OF EARTH PRESSURES ON FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES. THE BEHAVIOR OF ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALLS IS EXAMINED IN THE LIGHT OF MODEL TESTS, FIELD OBSERVATIONS, AND THEORETICAL ANALYSES. THESE PROVIDE A CLEAR PICTURE OF THE EFFECTS OF WALL DEFLECTION, ANCHOR YIELD, AND ARCHING. REVIEW OF AVAILABLE FIELD OBSERVATIONS INDICATES THAT THE TOTAL PRESSURES ON EXCAVATION BRACING SYSTEMS GENERALLY IS CONTROLLED BY THE SHEAR STRENGTH OF THE SOIL, WHILE THE DISTRIBUTION OF EARTH PRESSURES IS DETERMINED BY ARCHING. THESE CONSIDERATIONS, TOGETHER WITH RECENT ADVANCES IN MEASURING THE SHEAR STRENGTH OF CLAYS, CAN EXPLAIN THE ANOMALOUSLY HIGH STRUT LOADS IN SOME EXCAVATIONS IN WEAK CLAYS. THE USE OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD IS DISCUSSED AND ILLUSTRATED BY ANALYSES OF SHEET PILE WALLS AND AN EXCAVATION BRACING SYSTEM. /TRRL/

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3C63304277

Title: ANALYSIS OF A LATERALLY LOADED PILE IN A LAYERED SOIL BY ENERGY METHOD

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Siva, REDDY A

Valsangkar, AJ

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Applied Mechanics Reviews

Volume: 25 Number: 11

Publication Date: 11/00/72 Pagination: p 1344

Abstract Information

Abstract: IN CONTRAST TO CURRENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON THE WINKLER HYPOTHESIS AS APPLIED TO THE HOMOGENEOUS SOIL MEDIUM, THE AUTHORS USED THE ENERGY METHOD BASED ON THE RAYLEIGH-RITZ THEORY FOR THEIR CONSIDERATIONS OF THE STRAIN OF A LATERALLY LOADED PILE. SUCH A SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM, IN WHICH THE PILE HAS BEEN TREATED AS A BEAM WHILE USING THE BEAM VIBRATION FUNCTIONS TO DESIGNATE ITS DEFLECTION, RESULTS IN MUCH SIMPLER CALCULATIONS VERSUS THE USUALLY APPLIED POWER SERIES METHOD, AT THE SAME TIME RETAINING SUFFICIENT EXACTNESS OF RESULTS AS CONFIRMED BY COMPARATIVE CALCULATIONS. IN THE THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED OUT, BOTH FREE AND FIXED PILES WERE ANALYZED, LOADED BY A HORIZONTAL FORCE AND MOMENT OR, ALTERNATIVELY, BY A HORIZONTAL FORCE ONLY. A SOLUTION IS GIVEN FOR TWO SELECTED CASES OF TWO-LAYERED SOIL SYSTEMS, DIFFERING BY THEIR SOIL MODULUS DISTRIBUTION FOR BOTH LAYERS.

Supplementary notes: REV 8876

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P64228612

Title: HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD ANNUAL REPORT

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Publication Date: 6/30/55 Pagination:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Highway Research Board

Abstract Information

Abstract: THIS ANNUAL REPORT OF THE HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD TO THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS GIVES A SUMMARY ACCOUNT OF ITS PUBLICATION, SPECIAL PROJECTS, VISITING AND SERVICE ACTIVITIES IN THE PRECEDING YEAR. A LISTING OF COMMITTEES AND PUBLICATIONS BY SUBJECT AREA IS GIVEN. IN THE AREA OF ECONOMICS, FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION PROJECTS WERE UNDERWAY TO DETERMINE MANPOWER NEEDS AND UTILIZATION IN HIGHWAY ENGINEERING, TO REVIEW THE PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM, TO EXAMINE TAX STRUCTURE FOR INTERSTATE COMMERCE, TO RESEARCH HIGHWAY FINANCING AND REVENUE SOURCES, TO ANALYZE EDUCATION AND WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS, AND TO INVESTIGATE THE RIGHT-OF-WAY ACQUISITION PROBLEM. IN THE AREA OF DESIGN, STUDIES WERE UNDERWAY TO DEVELOP AND COMPILE NEW DESIGN PRACTICES, TO INVESTIGATE SPECIAL TOPICS RELATED TO BRIDGE DESIGN: VIBRATION AND DEFLECTION, COLUMN ANALYSIS, TOLL-PLAZA DESIGN, PILE GROUPS, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE RESEARCH. THE MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION DEPARTMENT REPORTED STUDIES ON DETERIORATION RESISTANCE OF BITUMINOUS MATERIALS, CONCRETE FREEZING AND THAWING, THE PURCHASE OF TRAFFIC MARKING MATERIALS. THE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT REPORTED STUDIES ON SHOULDER MAINTENANCE, COST ACCOUNTING PAVEMENT DETERIORATION, MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION, FROST EFFECTS, WARNING DEVICES, BRIDGE-AND-CULVERT MAINTENANCE. THE TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT REPORTED PARKING STUDIES, TRAFFIC ATTRACTION ANALYSIS, STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GEOMETRIC DESIGN, AND STUDIES OF CAPACITY, SPEED, PAVEMENT-MARKING, VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS, TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES. THE SOILS DEPARTMENT REPORTED STUDIES ON LOAD-DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS, COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS, PILE BEHAVIOR, SOIL STABILIZATION, LOADING RATE AND SOIL STRENGTH. FOUR CONTINUING PROJECTS AND THE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROCEDURE ARE DESCRIBED.

Supplementary notes: Annual RepoRT, 27 PP, 4 FIG, 1 TAB

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 3P90222020

Title: MEASURING PILE DEFLECTIONS WITH INCLINOMETER

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kim, JB

Brungraber, RJ

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 100 Number: GT7

Publication Date: 7/00/74 Pagination: pp 867-869

Figures: 1 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 1 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Abstract Information

Abstract: As part of an extensive study of the resistance of lateral loads of piles in pile groups, a series of full-scale tests was conducted. The purpose of this note is to report on the experience in measuring the lateral displacements of the piles with the inclinometer supplied by the Slope Indicator Company, known as a Digitilt-Minimouse, which was a 7/8-in. (22-mm) diameter unit, designed to be used in tubes that are smaller than the usual plastic or aluminum tubes that accomodate the standard Digitilt Model. One and one-half-inch (38-mm) square steel tubing welded that length of the piles was substituted. This tubing was welded in place before the piles were driven. Except for corrosion problems, which necessitated frequent cleaning of the tubes with wire brushes on long rods, the steel tubes worked quite satisfactorily. Under the best of circumstances the readings of the inclinometer were repeated to within plus or minus 5 units of the readout, which corresponds to the claims of the maker of the instrument when operated within the steel tubes used. However, note that the total system accuracy when operated within the manufacturer's special aluminum or plastic tubing has been shown to be four times better than this value. While not adequately precise for measuring displacements of these piles caused by lateral loads, the inclinometer was, however, successfully used to determine the as-driven configuration of the piles.

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1P63237330

Title: EFFECT OF PILE CAP-SOIL INTERACTION ON LATERAL CAPACITY OF

Foreign Title: PILE GROUPS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kim, JB

Singh, LP

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Federal Highway Administration

Source Data: S0247

Report No: Final Rpt.

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 5/00/74 Pagination:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Bucknell University

Department of Civil Engineering

Lewisburg, PA 17837

Available from:

National Technical Information Service

5285 Port Royal Road

Springfield, VA 22151

Order Number: PB-235480/AS

Abstract Information

Abstract: Lateral load tests were performed on three groups of six piles each and two isolated single piles (one batter and one vertical). Two groups had vertical piles, one group with 4 ft. spacing and one group with 3 ft. spacing. The third group also had 3 ft. spacing but four of the piles were battered to a slope of 3.5 to 1. The loading sequence was intended to simulate that of abutment foundations. The full-scale lateral load tests were performed in two phases. Phase I tests were conducted with the pile caps in contact with soil below. The results from these tests were reported earlier (Analysis and Full-Scale Lateral Load Tests, Final Report by Jai B. Kim, et.al., Civil Engineering Department, Bucknell University, 1973). Phase II consisted of additional lateral load tests on the same pile groups and piles after removing four inches of soil from under the pile caps. In Phase II tests relatively larger lateral deflections were obtained than in Phase I tests. At 8 tons per pile, these deflections were larger in the range of 37 to 50% for pile groups and 11% for the single vertical pile. The corresponding values at 16 tons per pile loading were 35 tp 180% and 37%. Removal of the soil from beneath the pile cap also increased the maximum positive moments at 8 tons per pile lateral loading by 9% in 4 Ft. spaced piles, 7% in 3 ft. spaced piles, and 8% in the single vertical pile. The corresponding increases in the ground level moments were 17%, 1%(?), and 82%. At 16 tons per pile lateral loading these values were 110%, 130%, and 30% in the case of maximum positive moments; and 110%, 90%, and 30% in the case of the ground level moments.

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

73-11 Contract

Miscellaneous Information:

HRIS Accession Number: 1C62023750

Title: ANALYSIS OF PILES IN SOIL UNDERGOING LATERAL MOVEMENT

Foreign Language:

Discusser(s):

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 100 Number: GT10

Report No: Proc Paper 10838 Proceeding

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 10/00/74 Pagination: pp 1162-63

References: 1 Ref. Appendices: 1 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Abstract Information

Abstract: The author, in the closure to the discussion of his paper observes that the simplified representation of the pile as a strip is commonly used in both elastic and subgrade reaction analyses of laterally loaded piles because of mathematical convenience. The pile-soil "stress," p, on any element is not a real stress but rather a traction which is determined by the requirements of compatibility of pile and soil displacements. It represents the resultant of all tractions acting on the element, e. g., in the case of a thin strip in a purely elastic soil, it is the resultant of equal compressive and tensile tractions in front of and behind the strip, respectively. The effect of pile shape could be incorporated into the analysis by introducing additional elements with corresponding tractions to represent, e. g. the sides of a rectangular pile. Additional compatibility equations may then be set up and solved for these tractions. However, preliminary analyses along these lines have shown that the decrease in deflection for normal piles is not great (less than 10 percent) and that only for piers would the effects of the sides be of practical significance. Comments are made on the discussers remarks about the value for Es. It is observed that despite the simplifications involved in the analysis, it has been found capable of producing load-deflection relationships which agree well with those observed in field and model tests. The suggestion that the finite element method gives a better simulation of the problem is not disputed provided that due caution is exercised in choosing the outer boundaries of the problem and in setting up a suitably accurate mesh.

Supplementary notes: Paper presented may, 19738, by Harry G. Paulous Proceeding Paper 9740.

Title: THE EFFECT OF HORIZONTAL LOADS ON PILES, DUE TO SURCHARGE OR SEISMIC EFFECTS. PROCEEDINGS OF SPECIALITY SESSION 10, NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING, TOKYO, JULY 1977

Foreign Language: French

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 242513

Report No: Monograph

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/77 Pagination: pp 1-124

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Japanese Association for Steel Pipe Piles

3-16 Kayabacho, Nihonbashi, Chuo

Tokyo, Japan

Abstract Information

Abstract: These proceedings contain the following papers: (A) State-of-the-art report: (1) Piles subjected to static lateral loads (De Beer, E); (2) Seismic effects on piles (Tajimi, H). (B) Static loading: (3) The effects of horizontal loads on piles due to landslides (Fukuoka, M); (4) Soil modulus for laterally loaded piles (Jamiolkowski, M and Garassino, A); (5) Bending of piles due to nearby surface loads in elastic soil (Canizo, L and Merino, M); (6) Horizontally loaded piles in layered soils (Dordi, CM); (7) a qualitative view of lateral displacements of poles and piles in sand (Hughes, JMO and Goldsmith, PR); (8) A field study of laterally loaded piles (Ingold, TS); (9) The effects of piles in a row on the slope stability (Ito, T and Matsui, T); (10) Large deflection of a single pile under horizontal load (Kishida, H and Nakai, S); (11) Bending moments prediction in piles subjected to horizontal soil movements (Marche, R and Schneeberger, CE); (12) Horizontally loaded piles. Deformation influence (Oteo, CS); (13) Large diameter bored piles for abutments (Schmidt, HG); (14) Creeping slope in a stiff clay (Sommer, H); Pile bending induced by unsymmetrical surcharges on the soil around a pile foundation (Wallays, M). (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 242516

Title: LATERAL LOAD TESTS OF A DRILL SHAFT IN CLAY

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Coyle, HM

Bartoskewitz, RE

Kasch, VR

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Record

Volume: Number: 733

Publication Date: 0/00/79 Pagination: pp 44-51

Figures: 9 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 23 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Transportation Research Board

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Available from:

Transportation Research Board Business Office

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The behavior of a laterally loaded drilled shaft in clay was investigated by conducting a lateral load test on an instrumented shaft. Lateral deflections, shaft rotation, and soil resistance were measured for each applied load. Dial gages were used to measure lateral deflection, and the shaft rotation was determined by means of an inclinometer. Pneumatic pressure cells were installed in the shaft at various depths to measure the soil resistance. The applied lateral load was measured by using a strain-gage load cell. Structural failure of the shaft occurred before the soil failed and prevented determination of the ultimate lateral soil resistance. However, the ultimate soil reactions predicted by several analytical procedures were compared with the soil reaction calculated from the maximum recorded soil resistance. Also, as ultimate lateral load for the test shaft was predicted by various analytical methods, and a comparison was made between the maximum recorded load and the various predicted ultimate loads. Finally, a comparison was made between two ultimate test loads reported in the technical literature and the ultimate loads predicted by the analytical methods. (Authors)

Supplementary notes: This paper appeared in Transportation Research Record No. 733: Mechanics of Track Support, Piles, and Geotechnical Data.

Title: ANALYSES OF HORIZONTAL LOADING TESTS ON FRANKI PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Delapierre, J

Dufour, CH

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 247421

Volume: 13 Number: 2

Publication Date: 3/00/80 Pagination: pp32-37

Figures: 8 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 2 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Road Research Centre, Belgium

Boulevard de la Woluwe 42

B-1200 Brussels, Belgium

Abstract Information

Abstract: The behaviour of single piles, subject to horizontal loading at the top, can be predicted by a method which uses A hyperbolic relationship between soil pressure and pile deflection. The method is applied to full-scale tests on two franki piles tested up to a maximum horizontal load of 25 t. Pile stiffness as measured in the laboratory was found to decrease rapidly with increasing bending moment. Two calculations were carried out to predict the pile performance, one with the real ei obtained from laboratory tests and another with a constant ei over the whole length. The calculations show that exact values of pile stress must be considered when horizontal loads become significant. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 247421

Title: SEISMIC P = Y RESPONSES OF FLEXIBLE PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kagawa, T

Kraft, LM, Jr

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 106 Number: GT8

Report No: ASCE 15656

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 8/00/80 Pagination: pp 899-918

Figures: Tables: 15 Fig. Photos: 2 Tab.

References: 17 Ref. Appendices: 2 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Available from:

Engineering Societies Library

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The finite element method was designed to solve soil-pile-structure interaction under seismic excitation by introducing "solid beam elements" to reproduce beam flexure and soil-pile interaction. Dynamic lateral load-deflection relationships were characterized by ratio of soil reaction per unit pile length to product of pile displacement relative to free-field motion and dynamic stress-strain properties of soil. Three hetergeneous soil profiles with equivalent linear approximation of nonlinear stress-strain behavior were used with this new finite element method to study the characteristics of dynamic lateral load-deflection relationships. Results were compared with those by other investigators and showed that the proposed method provided improved means of evaluating load-deflection relationships of piles. Results of this study were used to compute discrete soil-pile springs and dashpots for use in a beam-on-Winkler foundation model. (ASCE)

Title: MATERIAL DISPLACEMENT IN THE VICINITY OF EMBANKMENTS BUILT ON COMPRESSIBLE SOIL. FORECASTING METHOD

Foreign Title: DEPLACEMENTS LATERAUX A PROXIMITE DES REMBLAIS SUR SOLS

COMPRESSIBLES - METHODE DE PREVISION

Foreign Language: French

Author(s):

Bourges, F

Mieussens, C

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Central Laboratory

of Bridges & Highways, France

Source Data: IRRD 109233

Publication Title: Bulletin de Liaison des Lab des Ponts et Chaussees

Volume: Number: 101

Publication Date: 5/06/79 Pagination: pp 73-100

ISBN: ISSN: 04585860

Figures: 29 Fig. Tables: 6 Tab. Photos:

References: 30 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees

58 Boulevard Lefebvre

75732 Paris, France

Abstract Information

Abstract: The soil lateral displacement at the foot of the embankments built on compressible soil causes considerable bending stresses on piles driven in the vicinity of the embankment. A method of calculating these stresses exists already: it requires a knowledge of the free displacement of the soil (displacement when there is no pile) which, up to now, it was not possible to forecast. This study is based on numerous lateral displacement measurements made at the foot of embankments built on compressible soil over the past fifteen years. The analysis of the results enables the influence of the geometric and mechanical parameters of the embankment/compressible layer system and that of the time to be determined. Using the results of this analysis, a simple empirical method is proposed to predict the free displacements of the soil at the end of construction and their evolution during the consolidation of the compressible layer. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 109233

Title: ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PILES UNDER LATERAL LOADING

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Meyer, BJ

Reese, LC

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Federal Highway Administration

Report No: FHWA-TX-79-38+244-1 Intrm Rpt. FCP 40S8-383

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 12/00/79 Pagination: 182p

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Texas University, Austin

Center for Transportation Research

Austin, TX 78712

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Texas State Department of Highways & Public Transp

Transportation Planning Division, P.O. Box 5051

Austin, TX 78763

Available from:

National Technical Information Service

5285 Port Royal Road

Springfield, VA 22161

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The behavior of laterally loaded piles was investigated using the finite difference computer program COM623. A thorough search of the literature was undertaken to find the results of lateral load tests performed in clay and sand. The results of these analyses indicate that most of the p-y criteria, where p is the lateral resistance against the pile in force per unit of length and y is pile deflection, are satisfactory in predicting pile behavior. A modification of the p-y criteria of Reese and Welch (1975) was suggested, based on the results of some of the analyses presented in this report. (FHWA)

Supplementary notes: Research Study Title: "Development of Procedures for the Design of Drilled Foundationis for Support of Overhead Signs"

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

3-5-78-244 HP&R

Title: THE RELIEF OF NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION ON PILES BY ELECTRO- OSMOSIS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Davis, EH

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 239823

Report No: Res Rpt. No. R 367

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 5/00/80 Pagination: 30p

Figures: 9 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 11 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Sydney University, Australia

School of Civil Engineering, Parramatta Road

Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: The paper describes a method of analysing the magnitude and rate of reduction of negative skin friction on piles. The method combines a pile-soil interaction analysis (based on elastic theory) with a diffusion analysis for pore water flow under an electrical gradient. The method has been applied to predict the behaviour of a pile subjected to electro-osmosis in two cases: (I) a full-scale field trial carried out in Boston some years ago in which one pile in a group supporting a bridge abutment was cut, released from the pile cap and then subjected to electro-osmosis. "class a" predictions were made of the pile deflection at various stages in the trial, and comparisons are described between the predictions and the measurements. (II) a laboratory model test, in which negative friction has been induced in a pile by consolidation of the surrounding soil and then brief periods of electro-osmotic treatment have been applied to the pile. Prediction of the downdrag load versus time relationship are compared with the observed relationships (A). (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 239823

Title: DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE RECTANGULAR MEMBERS UNDER AXIAL

COMPRESSION, BENDING AND TORSION

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Sharma, A

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 252144

Publication Title: Institution of Civil Engineers, Proceedings, Pt2

Volume: 69 Number: PT2

Publication Date: 12/00/80 Pagination: pp 911-919

ISBN: ISSN: 03078361

Figures: 2 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 15 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Civil Engineers

1-7 Great George Street, Westminster

London SW1P 3AA, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: Columns may be subjected to significant torsion in addition to bending moment, particularly if the wind and seismic forces are considered. The paper presents an analysis based on a skew bending approach and is compared with actual test results. A simple procedure for design based on the proposed analysis is given. The procedure is illustrated by a numerical example taking into consideration the recommendations made in CP 110. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 252144

Title: PILE FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Poulos, HG

Davis, EH

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 252409

Report No: Monograph

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/80 Pagination: 307p

ISBN: 0-471-02084-2 ISSN:

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Wiley (John) and Sons, Limited

Baffins Lane

Chichester, Sussex, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: The aims of the book are to present a consistent theoretical approach to the prediction of pile deformation and load capacity, to offer parametric solutions for a wide range of cases, to demonstrate how such solutions can be used for design purposes, and to review the applicability of these approaches to practical problems. The material contained in the book is organized as follows: (1) the behaviour of piles under vertical loads (Chapters 2 to 6): effects of installation of piles, ultimate load capacity of piles, load capacity by dynamic methods, settlement analysis of single piles, settlement of pile groups; (2) the behaviour of piles under lateral loading (Chapters 7 and 8) and under combined vertical and lateral loading (Chapter 9); ultimate lateral resistance of piles, load-deflection prediction for laterally loaded piles, general analysis of pile groups; (3) the behaviour of piled rafts (Chapter 10): pile-raft systems; (4) piles subjected to vertical or lateral soil movements (Chapters 11 to 13): negative friction on end-bearing piles, piles in swelling and shrinking soils, piles in soil undergoing lateral movement; (5) miscellaneous topics such as pile buckling, dynamic loading, and pile load tests (Chapters 14 to 16): buckling of slender piles. Dynamic loads on piles, pile load tests. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 252409

Title: LATERAL LOAD-DEFLECTION RELATIONSHIPS OF PILES SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADINGS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kagawa, T

Kraft, LM

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 253661

Publication Title: Soils and Foundation

Volume: 20 Number: 4

Publication Date: 12/00/80 Pagination: pp 19-36

ISBN: ISSN: 00380806

Figures: 23 Fig. Tables: 2 Tab. Photos:

References: 23 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Japanese Society of Soil Mech & Foundation Engrs

13-5, 1-chome, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku

Tokyo, Japan

Abstract Information

Abstract: A simple representation of the dynamic lateral load-deflection relationship of a pile is presented for both pile-head and seismic excitation conditions. The lateral load-deflection relationship of a pile is represented by the soil reaction coefficient that is the ratio between a unit soil reaction on a pile and the productof soil modulus and pile displacement relative to the free field. As the soil reaction coefficient varies significantly along the pile even in a homogeneous soil, an averaging procedure is presented to determine an equivalent soil reaction coefficient that is constant with depth. The average soil reaction coefficients for homogeneous soil profiles are affected by the loading condition, pile flexibility factor, and pile slenderness ratio. The magnitudes of these influences are quantified. This averaging procedure can also be applied to heterogeneous layered soil profiles if A weighted soil modulus is used. The concept of the average soil reaction coefficient is extended to develop a procedure to compute the dynamic lateral load-deflection relations of piles when the stress-strain response of the soil is nonlinear and degradesdue to pore pressure increases with cyclic loading. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 253661

Title: USER'S GUIDE: COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF SHEET PILE WALLS BY CLASSICAL METHODS (CSHTWAL). REPORT 1. COMPUTATIONAL

PROCESSES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Dawkins, WP

Publication Information:

Source of Document: National Technical Information Service

Source Data: u8118

Report No: WES-INSTRUCTIONK8121 WES-INSTRUCTION-K-81-2-1

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 2/00/81 Pagination: 210p

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Oklahoma State University

Department of Civil Engineering

Stillwater, OK 74074

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Waterways Experiment Station

P.O. Box 631

Vicksburg, MI 39180

Publisher/Corporate Author 3:

Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Available from:

National Technical Information Service

5285 Port Royal Road

Springfield, VA 22161

Order Number: AD-A098693/5

Abstract Information

Abstract: This report describes the CSHTWAL computer program used for design and analysis of either anchored or cantilever sheet pile retaining walls. The program is written for interactive use from a remote terminal. Stratified soil profiles, irregular ground surfaces, arbitrary water levels, and a variety of vertical and horizontal external loads are permitted in the description of the wall-soil system. Net pressures on the wall are determined either by Coulomb coefficients or by a wedge method. Effective soil internal friction angle and effective soil cohesion are used for development of pressures. The program determines the required penetration for a given factor of safety; or, in the analysis mode, the factor of safety is determined for a given penetration. The conventional procedure for calculation of design penetration is used for cantilever walls. Five alternative procedures (free earth, fixed earth, equivalent beam, equal moment, and Terzaghi) are available for investigation of anchored walls. Output from the program consists of a summary of results containing design penetration or factor of safety with maximum bending moment, maximum relative deflection, and anchor force. A complete tabulation of net soil pressures, bending moments, shears, and deflections is available at the user's option. Example solutions and supporting verification of results are provided.

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

DACW39-79-M-1229 Contract

Title: LATERAL LOAD-DEFLECTION RELATIONSHIPS OF PILES SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADINGS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kagawa, T

Kraft, LM

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 253661

Publication Title: Soils and Foundation

Volume: 20 Number: 4

Publication Date: 12/00/80 Pagination: pp 19-36

ISBN: ISSN: 00380806

Figures: 23 Fig. Tables: 2 Tab. Photos:

References: 23 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Japanese Society of Soil Mech & Foundation Engrs

13-5, 1-chome, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku

Tokyo, Japan

Abstract Information

Abstract: A simple representation of the dynamic lateral load-deflection relationship of a pile is presented for both pile-head and seismic excitation conditions. The lateral load-deflection relationship of a pile is represented by the soil reaction coefficient that is the ratio between a unit soil reaction on a pile and the product of soil modulus and pile displacement relative to the free field. As the soil reaction coefficient varies significantly along the pile even in a homogeneous soil, an averaging procedure is presented to determine an equivalent soil reaction coefficient that is constant with depth. The average soil reaction coefficients for homogeneous soil profiles are affected by the loading condition, pile flexibility factor, and pile slenderness ratio. The magnitudes of these influences are quantified. This averaging procedure can also be applied to heterogeneous layered soil profiles if a weighted soil modulus is used. The concept of the average soil reaction coefficient is extended to develop a procedure to compute the dynamic lateral load-deflection relations of piles when the stress-strain response of the soil is nonlinear and degrades due to pore pressure increases with cyclic loading.(a) (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 253661

Title: LATERAL RESISTANCE AND DEFLECTION OF RIGID WALLS AND PILES IN LAYERED SOILS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Meyerhof, GG

Mathur, SK

Valsangkar, AJ

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Roads and

Transportation Association of Canada

Source Data: IRRD 257313

Publication Title: Canadian Geotechnical Journal

Volume: 18 Number: 2

Publication Date: 5/00/81 Pagination: pp 159-170

ISBN: ISSN: 00083674

Figures: 17 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 32 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

National Research Council of Canada

Montreal Road

Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Abstract Information

Abstract: The ultimate lateral resistance and the lateral deflection at working loads of rigid vertical walls and piles with a free head subjected to horizontal load and embedded in two-layered soils of sand and clay have been investigated. Part 1 deals with the behaviour of rigid walls, and the analyses are compared with the results of model wall tests in layered soils. Part 2 treats the behaviour of rigid piles, and the analyses are compared with the results of model tests on piles and pile groups in layered soils and some field case records. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 257313

Title: SENSORS IN HIGHWAY AND CIVIL ENGINEERING. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ORGANISED BY THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, LONDON, 5

FEBRUARY 1981

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Twyning, A

Shelley, TR

Mure, JN

Kightley, ML

Geraghty, F

Fudger, G

Duley, RK

Moore, RC

Thorpe, BJ

Jordan, PG

Brown, SF

Brodrick, BV

Lewis, JC

Innes, J

Deeth, CP

Grant, MA

Leon, TM

Mountain, LJ

Bridle, RJ

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 257570

Report No: Monograph

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/81 Pagination: 185p

ISBN: 0-7277-0109-6 ISSN:

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos: Phots.

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Civil Engineers

Telford House, P.O. Box 102, 26-34 Old Street

London, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: The following papers were included in the proceedings: Laser Control of Construction Equipment (Twyning, A); Sensors for Road Pavers (Shelley, TR); Dynamic Assessment and Control of Piling Operations (Mure, JN and Kightley, ML); Computer Based Traffic Management Systems for Road Tunnels (Geraghty, F); Sensor Applications in Road Tunnels (Fudger, G); The Loop Detector and Its Applications (Duley, RK); Road Sensors for Traffic Data Collection (Moore, RC); Detection of Overweight Vehicles at Clifton Suspension Bridge (Thorpe, BJ); Measurement of Road Surface Shape Using a Laser Sensor (Jordan, PG); Instrumentation for Monitoring the Response of Pavements to Wheel Loading (Brown, SF and Brodrick, BV); Continuous Measurement and Recording of Deflections of Structures (Lewis, JC); Inertial Platform Techniques for Rapid Surveys of Hilliness and Bendiness (Innes, J); Land Survey and Setting out Using EDM Equipment and Electronic Processing (Deeth, CP; Grant, MA and Leon, TM); Traffic Data from Aerial Photography Using Semi-automatic Methods (Mountain, LJ); and, Closing Address (Bridle, RJ). (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 257570

Title: LABORATORY MODEL TESTING OF BRIDGE PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS AND DEVICES (FENDERING)

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Derucher, KN

Publication Information:

Source of Document: National Technical Information Service

Source Data: u8205

Report No: 523-01-CG Final Rpt. USCG-N-1-81

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 9/00/81 Pagination: 257p

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Civil Design, Incorporated

Morristown, NJ

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

United States Coast Guard

Office of Navigation

Washington, DC 20590

Available from:

National Technical Information Service

5285 Port Royal Road

Springfield, VA 22161

Order Number: AD-A106771/9

Abstract Information

Abstract: This report presents investigations and descriptions of a computer and laboratory model study of bridge protective systems and devices. Eight bridge protective systems were run by computer analysis to ascertain their effectiveness as a protective system. In addition, two bridges: the Benjamin Harrison Bridge and the Berwick Bay Bridge were analyzed by the computer and by hydraulic model testing. Based upon the analysis of these ten bridges and their respective protective systems, design standards and criteria were developed for AREA and AASHTO. (Author)

Supplementary notes: Prepared in cooperation with Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ.

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

DOT-CG-908665-A Contract

Title: THE RESPONSE OF FLEXIBLE PILES TO LATERAL LOADING

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Randolph, MF

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 258829

Publication Title: Geotechnique

Volume: 31 Number: 2

Publication Date: 6/00/81 Pagination: pp 247-259

ISBN: ISSN: 00168505

Figures: 12 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 21 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Civil Engineers

1-7 Great George Street, Westminster

London SW1P 3AA, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: The majority of piles encountered in practice may be regarded as "flexible" under lateral loading. That is, the induced deformations and bending moments are confined to the upper part of the pile and the overall length of the pile does not significantly affect the response of the pile. The results of a parametric study, conducted using the finite element method and treating the soil as an elastic continuum with a linearly varying soil modulus, are presented as simple algebraic expressions. These expressions are similar in form to those which arise from a winkler idealization of the soil, enabling immediate estimates to be made of the active length of the pile; the ground level deformations; and the maximum bending moment down the pile. In addition, expressions are presented quantifying the effect of interaction between neighbouring piles, from which the behaviour of groups of piles subjected to lateral loading may be deduced. Application of the solutions is demonstrated by the analysis of lateral loading tests on single piles and on groups of piles. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 258829

Title: FLEXIBILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR THE DESIGN OF PILES AND PILE GROUPS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Butterfield, R

Douglas, RA

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 259263

Report No: No. 108 Monograph

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/81 Pagination: 79p

ISBN: 086017-171-X ISSN: 03051781

Figures: Figs. Tables: Photos:

References: 16 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Construction Industry Research & Information Assoc

6 Storey's Gate

London SW1P 3AU, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: A pile group subjected to vertical and horizontal loads will deflect and rotate. Charts of flexibility coefficients are provided to enable the designer to check whether the deflections and rotations in a given system are acceptable, and to investigate the effect of varying the geometry of the pile group and the material and dimensions of the individual piles. These charts were derived from a parametric study using the Department of Transport's computer program PGROUP. Charts are also presented which summarise the change of stiffness produced by modifying the number of piles in groups of any size. If necessary, the forces and stresses in individual piles may be finally checked using the pgroup program, when a suitable pile design has been derived with the aid of the charts. The design process is illustrated by worked examples. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 259263

Title: BEHAVIOUR OF SINGLE PILES SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LATERAL LOAD

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 255037

Report No: R 385 Monograph

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 4/00/81 Pagination: 59p

Figures: 21 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 18 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Sydney University, Australia

School of Civil Engineering, Parramatta Road

Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: An analysis is presented for the deflection of a pile in clay subjected to quasi-static cyclic lateral loading. This analysis is an extension of the elastic continuum analysis for static pile response, and allows for the reduction of soil modulus and yield pressure with increasing cyclic strain or deflection. A number of theoretical solutions are presented to illustrate the factors influencing the increase in deflection and bending moment in the pile with increasing cycles and cyclic load level. Some of these solutions are presented in dimensionless form as correction factors which may be applied to the computed static response of a pile. Some comparisons are made between the theoretical behaviour and that measured in field tests, and these demonstrate that the theory reproduces the observed characteristics of behaviour of the pile. They also give an indication of the order of magnitude of some of the key variables in the cyclic response analysis. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 255037

Title: SINGLE PILE RESPONSE TO CYCLIC LATERAL LOAD

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Publication Title: ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Div

Volume: 108 Number: GT3

Publication Date: 3/00/82 Pagination: pp 355-375

Figures: 15 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 18 Ref. Appendices: Apps.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Available from:

Engineering Societies Library

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: An analysis is presented for the deflection of a pile in clay subjected to quasi-static cyclic lateral loading. This analysis is an extension of the elastic continuum analysis for static pile response, and allows for the reduction of soil modulus and yield pressure with increasing cyclic strain or deflection. A number of theoretical solutions are presented to illustrate the factors influencing the increase in deflection and bending moment in the pile with increasing cycles and cyclic load level. Some of these solutions are presented in dimensionless form as correction factors which may be applied to the computed static response of a pile. Some comparisons are made between the theoretical behavior and that measured in field tests, and these demonstrate that the theory reproduces the observed characteristics of behavior of the pile. They also give an indication of the order of magnitude of some of the key variables in the cyclic response analysis. (Author)

Title: APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS TO BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS CONSISTING OF LARGE PILE GROUPS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Wilson, MF

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 255424

Report No: V11, Pt2

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/82 Pagination: pp 206-214

ISBN: ISSN: 05721431

Figures: 17 Fig. Tables: 2 Tab. Photos:

References: 1 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Australian Road Research Board

500 Burwood Road

Vermont South, Victoria 3133, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: This paper reports on the use of a commercial finite element package in the analysis of bridge foundations consisting of large pile groups. Two actual design cases are presented. The first examines the distribution of axial loads in a pile group, and the second investigates the lateral movements of a pile-soil medium. The commercial package used is described as well as the range of element types used in the analysis. The behaviour of piled foundations was found to depend on some parameters of the finite element model more than others and attention was paid to the more sensitive ones. Computing facilities and cost placed a limit on the size and sophistication of models used. Symmetry was used to reduce the size of the model wherever possible. This was accomplished by using separate models with symmetric and antisymmetric boundary conditions along planes of symmetry for the symmetric and antisymmetric components of load (A). The number of the covering abstract of the conference is TRIS No. 368448. (TRRL)

Supplementary notes: Proceedings of the Eleventh Australian Road Research Board Conference, held at the University of Melbourne, August 23-27, 1982.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 255424

Title: UPLIFT CAPACITY OF PIPE PILES IN SATURATED CLAY

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Das, BM

Seeley, GR

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 263873

Publication Title: Soils and Foundation

Volume: 22 Number: 1

Publication Date: 3/00/82 Pagination: pp 91-94

ISBN: ISSN: 00380806

Figures: 7 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 9 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Japanese Society of Soil Mech & Foundation Engrs

13-5, 1-chome, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku

Tokyo, Japan

Abstract Information

Abstract: Small-scale laboratory model test results on the ultimate uplift capacity of pipe piles in saturated clay are presented. Based on these and the limited test results conducted in the past, tentative equations for the variation in the adhesion/undrained-cohesion-of-the-clay constant with the undrained shear strength of clay have been developed. For a given undrained shear strength of clay, the net pullout load and the corresponding vertical deflection of piles can be expressed by a nondimensional equation. The nondimensional equation is independent of the embedment ratio of piles. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 263873

Title: OFFSHORE PILE LOAD TESTS ON COMPOSITE FRICTION PILES, LAKE PENDOREILLE, IDAHO

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Waite, CA

Narkiewicz, SA

Jones, WV

Publication Information:

Report No: Proceeding

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/82 Pagination: p 247

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Idaho Department of Transportation

P.O. Box 7129, 3211 State Street

Boise, ID 83707

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Idaho University, Moscow

Department of Geology

Moscow, ID 83843

Publisher/Corporate Author 3:

Boise State University

Department of Geology and Geophysics

Boise, ID

Abstract Information

Abstract: Three 100-ft long composite steel-timber friction piles in soft lake sediments were tested axially and laterally and results were compared to calculated values. Special facilities and equipment required for testing the piles over water are described. Settlement tests were performed by monitoring settlements for 24 hours with the design load on the pile. The piles were then failed using the Quick Maintained Load Test Method (ASTM D-1143). Piles were finally tested laterally and deflections were measured at various depths using a slope inclinometer placed inside the pile. Lateral load test data were used to determine horizontal coefficient of subgrade reaction for the soil and to confirm point of fixity estimates. Soil set up or seizure was evaluated using retapping records and ultimate load test data and the Wave Equation Method of dynamic analysis. Pile driving and acceptance criteria were developed from the dynamic analysis. Details of the test facilities, procedures, and analyses are presented. Installation of piling for the 5900 ft long bridge was recently completed. Comparison of conditions encountered with those predicted by the analysis and testing are made. (Author)

Supplementary notes: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Engineering Geology and Soils Engineering Symposium, held at Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, March 31, April 1 and 2, 1982.

Title: A NEW METHOD OF MEASURING DEFORMATIONS IN DIAPHRAGM WALLS AND PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kovari, K

Amstad, C

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 266853

Publication Title: Geotechnique

Volume: 32 Number: 4

Publication Date: 12/00/82 Pagination: pp 402-406

ISBN: ISSN: 00168505

Figures: 7 Fig. Tables: Photos: 1 Phot.

References: 3 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Civil Engineers

1-7 Great George Street, Westminster

London SW1P 3AA, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: A novel portable strain measuring device called the sliding micrometer iseth has been developed. The continuous direct measurement of strain along one or more straight lines is possible using the device. A hard pvc tube is connected into the structure containing steel ring-shaped measuring marks at 1 M intervals. The rings contain stops to hold the two heads of the portable device in position during readings. A linear displacement transducer is used to determine the relative displacement of the measuring marks as a measure of the strain in the surrounding concrete. The instrument with a base length of 1 M has an accuracy of strain measurement in the field of better than 3 microns. The linearity of the inductance transducer can be checked by using a calibration frame before and after any set of measurements. Examples are given showing how the apparatus can be used to determine the strain distribution, curvature and deflection of axially and laterally loaded piles and the strain distribution and curvature of a diaphragm wall at the excavation stage. A load-settlement diagram is given for top and bottom of an axially loaded pile. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 266853

Title: LATERALLY LOADED PILE GROUPS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Fendall, HDW

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 268157

Publication Title: School of Engineering Report

Volume: Number: 251

Report No: Monograph

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 10/00/80 Pagination: 227p

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Auckland University, New Zealand

Private Bag

Auckland 1, New Zealand

Abstract Information

Abstract: This thesis is concerned with the problem of determining the response of pile groups to lateral loads. A model study is utilised to provide information on the effects of pile interaction and pile installation. The principal aim of the study was to define the effects of interaction between laterally loaded piles that have been installed by driving. Previous studies have ignored the effects of the installation process. The experimental programme was mainly involved with studying interaction between two piles in dense dry sand. The influence of pile interaction on the lateral load carrying capacity of each pile within the group, has been investigated in detail for various conditions of pile shape and stiffness, head fixity, and sand density. Three approaches were used to assess pile interaction. The first employed a stereophotogrammetric technique to observe the movement of sand particles. The second involved the determination of the lateral load resistance of each pile and the variation in this with pile deflection and pile spacing. Lastly a pile instrumented with pressure transducers was used to obtain the soil pressure distribution against each pile and to observe the changes resulting from pile interaction. Based on the information obtained from the measurement of soil pressures, the general response of sand to pile transmitted lateral loads is discussed. The results are compared with the commonly assumed values of soil stiffness and ultimate pressures. The effect of pile driving on the surrounding soil is studied. The driving process is shown to substantially alter the subsequent lateral response of each pile within the group. Previous model studies and current analytical techniques for assessment of pile interaction are reviewed. An analytical method of allowing for pile interaction, based on the results of the experimental study, is presented. This new technique is considered to give more realistic estimates of pile interaction, especially in the way it affects individual piles within a group. Charts are presented, from which an assessment of the maximum likely effects of interaction can be easily obtained without the need for a rigourous analysis. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 268157

Title: DYNAMIC STABILITY OF STEEL PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Cugley, RC

Melchers, RE

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 271996

Volume: Number: 83/3

Publication Date: 0/00/83 Pagination: pp 128-132

ISBN: 0-85825-183-3 ISSN:

Figures: 7 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 11 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Engineers, Australia

11 National Circuit

Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: The response of an initially curved cantilever strut with a lumped mass at the tip subject to arbitrary axial impact loads is described, as a model for the dynamic response of piles being driven into the ground. The differential equation of motion defining the lateral movement of impact loaded cantilever struts is derived. This equation includes the effect of inertial resistance to motion provided by both the strut self mass and the mass of a pile hammer. The probable shape of force pulses produced during pile driving were obtained from observations by others and approximated by an equivalent trapezoidal force pulse. The differential equation of motion was solved for this force pulse using the Runge Kutta technique and for physical parameters corresponding to those of a slender steel pile which was observed whilst being driven. The resulting solution was found to agree well with observed pile behaviour during driving in that the magnitude of lateral displacements were very small. It is also shown that the magnitude of lateral displacements reduces as the mass of the pile hammer increases, due to inertial effects. In principle, the theory presented can be used to determine the maximum slenderness ratio for a cantilever pile so as to keep the lateral deflections within a prescribed value for a given pulse shape. (Author/TRRL)

Supplementary notes: This paper was presented during the Metal Structures Conference 1983, Brisbane, May 18-20, 1983.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 271996

Title: RESPONSE OF INITIALLY BENT AND IMPERFECT PILES TO VERTICAL LOADS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kurma Rao, K

Krishna Murthi, H

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 275980

Publication Title: Indian Geotechnical Journal

Volume: 11 Number: 3

Publication Date: 7/00/81 Pagination: pp 237-247

ISBN: ISSN: 00468983

Figures: 10 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 7 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Indian Geotechnical Society

Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg

New Delhi 110001, India

Abstract Information

Abstract: It is known that the piles when driven may not be perfectly straight. A number of cases are reported recently in which long slender piles have become bent during driving. Distortion of the pile from the vertical axis is caused due to various reasons. The response of bent and imperfect piles to vertical loads is studied and various boundary conditions for the piles are considered. The effect of modulus on the lateral deflections of bent and imperfect piles is presented. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 275980

Title: SOME LATERAL LOAD TESTS ON MODEL PILE GROUPS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Selby, AG

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 272151

Volume: Number: R457

Report No: Monograph

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 10/00/83 Pagination: n.p.

Figures: 58 Fig. Tables: 8 Tab. Photos: 5 Phot.

References: 36 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Sydney University, Australia

School of Civil and Mining Engineering

Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: A series of lateral load tests on model pile groups was made, in which some piles carried strain gauges near their heads for measurement of moment and shears. The piles were positioned in a sand tank, and sand was rained around them, after which a segmented pile cap was clamped around the pile heads, at an overhang above ground level of 100 mm. Strain gauge readings were taken at several points during a lateral loading pattern of load cycling followed by load to failure. Results showed that leading piles in a group carried much higher cap level moments and shears than trailing piles. It is suggested that this "shielding" effect may be caused by a reduction in passive pressure on trailing piles by sand particle movements away from the passive pressure zone of a trailing pile. It was also shown that considerable residual moments and shears were induced in piles in the model groups by one or more cycles of load, and that load cycling increased moments but not shears. Analyses of the model tests by three methods failed to predict the non-uniformity of load effects. The most comprehensive of these analytical methods, however, made good predictions of pile behaviour in other respects. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 272151

Title: STATIC AND DYNAMIC LATERAL DEFLEXION OF PILES IN NON-HOMOGENEOUS SOIL STRATUM

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Krishnan, R

Gazetas, G

Velez, A

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 276709

Publication Title: Geotechnique

Volume: 33 Number: 3

Publication Date: 9/00/83 Pagination: pp 307-325

ISBN: ISSN: 00168505

Figures: 15 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 34 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Civil Engineers

1-7 Great George Street, Westminster

London SW1P 3AA, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: The paper presents the results of a systematic parametric investigation of the static and dynamic response of single free-head piles embedded in a soil stratum, the modulus of which increases linearly with depth. The study is conducted by means of a dynamic finite-element formulation which accounts for the three-dimensionality of soil deformation while properly reproducing the radiation damping characteristics of the system. The soil is modelled as a linear hysteretic continuum and the excitation consists of a sinusoidally time-varying horizontal force or moment, applied at the pile head. Comprehensive plots of the results are presented in non-dimensional form, for a wide range of the most significant dimensionless groups of problem parameters. For the response of flexible piles, in particular, simple algebraic expressions are developed in terms of the ratio youngs modulus of pile/youngs modulus of soil at depth equal to pile diameter, of the pile and soil moduli. These expressions, being valid for several values of Poisson's ratios of the soil, compare favourably with results from previous studies and are expected to be useful in practical design calculations. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 276709

Title: HANDBOOK ON DESIGN OF PILES AND DRILLED SHAFTS UNDER LATERAL LOAD

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Reese, LC

Publication Information:

Report No: FHWA-IP-84-11

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 7/00/84 Pagination: 386p

Figures: 97 Fig. Tables: 31 Tab. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices: 8 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Texas University, Austin

Geotechnical Engineering Center

Austin, TX 78712

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Federal Highway Administration

Turner Fairbank Hwy Res Cntr, 6300 Georgetown Pike

McLean, VA 22101

Available from:

Texas University, Austin

Geotechnical Engineering Center

Austin, TX 78712

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: This Handbook is specifically designed as a guide to highway engineers. It was used as a textbook for the FHWA training courses on the above title. Several methods of analysis and design of piles under lateral loading are in use. Two methods are presented: the method of Broms, and the method where nonlinear soil-response curves, p-y curves, are employed. The latter method is given prominence because of its versatility. A computer program is presented for solving the equations giving pile deflection, rotation, bending moment, and shear. An iterative procedure is employed internally in the computer program because of the nonlinear response of the soil. Nondimensional curves are presented that can be used for "hand" solution of the differential equation. Nondimensional solutions are useful as a means of checking computer output and to provide insight into the nature of the problem. Several examples are solved and the material is presented in a manner to simplify the necessary comoputations, with step-by-step procedures given where appropriate. The Handbook is related to a research document with the same title submitted to the Office of Research and Development of the Federal Highway Administration dated July, 1983. (Author)

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

DTFH 61-82-C-00100 Contract

Title: LATERAL LOAD TESTS ON MODEL PILE GROUPS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Selby, AG

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 272261

Volume: Number: 84/2

Publication Date: 3/00/84 Pagination: pp 154-158

ISBN: 0-85825-208-2 ISSN:

Figures: 7 Fig. Tables: 2 Tab. Photos:

References: 8 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Engineers, Australia

11 National Circuit

Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: A series of laboratory tests on model single piles and pile groups in sand is described. The main objectives of the tests were to examine the "shielding" effect in laterally loaded pile groups, whereby the front piles carry a greater proportion of load than the rear piles. The tests clearly showed this shielding effect and indicated that, as the load increased towards failure, the sign of the bending moment in the rear piles could even change. Load cycling was found to influence bending moments in the piles, but to have little effect on pile shears. Comparisons between measured and theoretical group deflections, moments, shears and axial forces, showed some measure of agreement, particularly if the theory incorporated pile-soil-pile interaction. However, none of the existing theories was capable of allowing directly for the shielding effect. Consequently, theoretical predictions of shear and moment distributions within laterally loaded pile groups will remain inaccurate until allowance for the shielding effect is made. (Author/TRRL)

Supplementary notes: Papers presented during the Geomechanics-Interaction, Fourth Australia-New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, Perth Western Australia, 14-18 May 1984, Volumes I and II.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 272261

Title: SHAKEDOWN ANALYSIS OF A LATERALLY LOADED PILE TESTED IN STIFF CLAY

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Swane, IC

Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 272263

Volume: Number: 84/2

Publication Date: 3/00/84 Pagination: pp 165-169

ISBN: 0-85825-208-2 ISSN:

Figures: 12 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 10 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Engineers, Australia

11 National Circuit

Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: A method for analysing the cyclic behaviour of laterally loaded piles has been developed and applied to single vertical piles embedded in clay soils. The soil-pile interaction model is bilinear-elasto-plastic and is based on subgrade reaction theory. Depending upon the pile-soil characteristics and the magnitude and type of cyclic loading, the pile response may shakedown and stabilize to an elastic response, or continue to accumulate deflections and deteriorate until failure occurs. Comparisons are made between the theoretical behaviour and that measured in field tests. The analysis is used to simulate the increase in pile displacement, bending moments and gap development during each load cycle. The method also illustrates the different modes of failure that may occur as a result of cyclic loading. The comparisons demonstrate that the theory reproduces the observed characteristics of pile behaviour, and is capable of providing additional information which is often difficult to assess during field testing. (Author/TRRL)

Supplementary notes: Papers presented during the Geomechanics-Interaction, Fourth Australia-New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, Perth, Western Australia, 14-18 May 1984, Volumes I and II.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 272263

Title: BEHAVIOUR OF SOCKETED PILES IN WEATHERED BASALT

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Evans, RS

McDonald, P

Worotnicki, GA

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 272275

Volume: Number: 84/2

Publication Date: 3/00/84 Pagination: pp 372-377

ISBN: 0-85825-208-2 ISSN:

Figures: 6 Fig. Tables: 3 Tab. Photos:

References: 8 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Engineers, Australia

11 National Circuit

Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: A lack of data on the behaviour of bored piles in weathered basalt led the foundation designers of a major bridge in Melbourne to carry out six instrumented pile load tests. The behaviour of three side resistance, one base resistance and two complete piles socketed into variably weathered and jointed basalt was investigated in relation to the physical characteristics of the rock. Applied loads were generally sufficient to produce significant time-dependent deformations of the rock socket. The tests permitted an evaluation of ultimate side and base resistance stresses and confirmed that presumptive design stresses were adequate. The degree of weathering visually assessed during socket inspection provided the most reliable basis for assigning allowable stresses. Pressuremeter tests tended to over- estimate the rock modulus back-figured from pile load test results. Elastic theory is shown to be adequate for estimating pile settlement at design loads although time dependent settlements should be accounted for by using a reduced pressuremeter modulus. (Author/TRRL)

Supplementary notes: Papers presented during the Geomechanics-Interaction, Fourth Australia-New Zealand conference on Geomechanics, Perth, Western Australia, 14-18 May 1984, Volumes I and II.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 272275

Title: THE DESIGN OF FRANKIPILES IN CLAYS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

McAnally, PA

Douglas, DJ

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 272279

Volume: Number: 84/2

Publication Date: 3/00/84 Pagination: pp 402-407

ISBN: 0-85825-208-2 ISSN:

Figures: 10 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 16 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Engineers, Australia

11 National Circuit

Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: This paper reports the results of a study of the performance of Franki cast-in-situ piles in clays based on the results of load tests. It is normal for pile depths and capacity to be determined from dynamic measurements made during construction (pile set and basing resistance) but it is frequently necessary at the design or estimating stage to make predictions using static design methods based on shear strength parameters. It is known that most conventional methods of static analysis (eg, using the Australian piling code 1978) will lead to an unduly conservative estimate of pile capacity, and this paper aims at producing a more realistic design method based on correlation with known test results. (Author/TRRL)

Supplementary notes: Papers presented during the Geomechanics-Interaction, Fourth Australia-New Zealand conference on Geomchanics, Perth, Western Australia, 14-18 May 1984, Volumes I and II.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 272279

Title: EXPERIMENTALLY DETERMINED DISTRIBUTION OF STRESS AROUND A HORIZONTALLY LOADED MODEL PILE IN DENSE SAND

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Williams, DJ

Parry, RHG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 272295

Volume: Number: 84/2

Publication Date: 3/00/84 Pagination: pp 578-582

ISBN: 0-85825-208-2 ISSN:

Figures: 6 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 2 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Engineers, Australia

11 National Circuit

Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: A model pile instrumented with miniature load cells has been jacked into a bed of dense sand and loaded horizontally in two directions. From the load cell readings taken and a consideration of force equilibrium, the approximate distribution of stress around the circumference of the pile on horizontal loading has been obtained. The stresses induced on horizontal loading were found to be confined essentially to the leading face of the pile and comprised components in the horizontal plane and a longitudinal shear component resulting from flexing of the pile. The resultant stress in the horizontal plane was non-uniform and directed approximately radially towards the pile around much of its circumference. In the analysis of a pile under horizontal loading, it is generally assumed that the horizontal load is resisted solely by a stress uniform across the width of the pile and directed parallel to the horizontal load. Taking no account of stresses not aligned with the horizontal load is found to underestimate the resistance of the pile/sand system to horizontal loading. (Author/TRRL)

Supplementary notes: Papers presented during the Geomechanics-Interaction, Fourth Australia-New Zealand conference on Geomechanics, Perth, Western Australia, 14-18 May 1984, Volumes I and II.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 272295

Title: BEHAVIOUR OF A PROPPED EMBEDDED RETAINING WALL IN A STIFF CLAY AT BELL COMMON TUNNEL

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Tedd, P

Chard, BM

Charles, JA

Symons, IF

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 281208

Publication Title: Geotechnique

Volume: 34 Number: 4

Publication Date: 12/00/84 Pagination: pp 513-532

ISBN: ISSN: 00168505

Figures: 13 Fig. Tables: 3 Tab. Photos: 3 Phot.

References: 19 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Civil Engineers

1-7 Great George Street, Westminster

London SW1P 3AA, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: Extensive instrumentation has been installed at Bell Common tunnel to monitor the performance of a propped embedded retaining wall and the behaviour of the stiff clay in which it has been constructed. Earth and porewater pressures, ground and wall movements, and roof loading have been monitored during the construction period. The deformations and stresses measured at each stage of construction are presented and the performance of the wall is discussed. (TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 281208

Title: CONSISTENT RELIABILITY FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Walsh, PF

Pham, L

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Australian Road

Research Board

Source Data: IRRD 277630

Publication Title: Institution of Engineers (Australia) Civ Eng Trans

Volume: CE2 Number: 1

Publication Date: 2/00/85 Pagination: pp 95-97

ISBN: ISSN: 01592068

Figures: 5 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 4 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Engineers, Australia

11 National Circuit

Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Abstract Information

Abstract: This paper very briefly outlines a strategy for achieving a more consistent level of reliability over the range of pure flexure to direct axial force for reinforced concrete members. The proposal also improves the consistency of risk for lightly to heavily reinforced sections. An attractive feature is that the amount of design calculation is actually reduced. This is achieved by introducing a partial safety factor on the concrete strength, and the elimination of the variable strength reduction factor for beams and columns. The partial safety factor can be incorporated without any extra design effort by simply reducing the 0.85 factor in the stress block to 0.6. (Author/TRRL)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8IRRD 277630

Title: A REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF PILE DESIGN

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Report No: UKTRP-84-33

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 12/00/84 Pagination: 38p

Figures: 11 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 33 Ref. Appendices: 1 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Kentucky University

Kentucky Transportation Research Program

Lexington, KY 40506

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Kentucky Transportation Cabinet

State Office Building, Clinton and High Streets

Frankfort, KY 40622

Publisher/Corporate Author 3:

Federal Highway Administration

400 7th Street, SW

Washington, DC 20590

Available from:

National Technical Information Service

5285 Port Royal Road

Springfield, VA 22161

Order Number: PB86-147782/AS

Abstract Information

Abstract: A review of lateral load design of piles is presented. It appears many different methods and allowable lateral loads are permitted by the states. One particular method is discussed in detail, and from that method two charts are presented that relate pile deflection to lateral load. Recommendations are given on design criteria for lateral loads. A review of allowable axial stresses is also presented. The results of a brief finite element analysis of pile tip settlement versus load for various conditions are also presented. These results are compared to data obtained from the literature. Recommendations on maximum allowable axial stress are given. (Author)

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

KYHPR-72-69 Contract

Title: FIELD INSTRUMENTATION IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Hanna, TH

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 284776

Report No: Volume 10

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/85 Pagination: 854p

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Trans Tech Publications

P.O. Box 266

Clausthal-zellerfieL, West Germany

Available from:

Trans Tech Publications

P.O. Box 266

Clausthal-zellerfieL, West Germany

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The first chapter sets out the philosophy of the book. Chapter 2 explains the basic principles of measurement and gives details of a range of load cells from the routine to the highly specialised. Chapter 3 discusses in detail the theory of the piezometer and lists the various types available for fully and partly saturated soils. Particular attention is given to sources of error, falsification of reading, longevity of the sensor and special applications such as pile driving, in-situ testing, field installation and use. The measurement of total and effective pressures in soils and rocks and at the boundaries between a structure and the ground is considered in chapter 4. Chapter 5 reviews the extensive range of instruments available for ground movement measurement from routine plane surveying to the sophisticated and highly accurate special devices with special consideration given to their reliability, accuracy and longevity, and use in a range of foundation environments. Chapter 6 reviews the special instruments used for specialized problems such as vibration measurement, temperature determination or continuous measurement of the deflection of structures. Chapter 7 is an overview of the uses of field instruments for observing the behaviour of some twenty different types of foundation problems. The final chapter concentrates on the planning and interpretation of instrumentation programmes, and on the use of field measurement in the development and calibration of numerical models; some examples are given. (TRRL)

Title: FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE PIERS SUBJECTED TO REVERSED CYCLIC LOADING

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Rizkalla, SH

Saadat, F

Higai, T

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Record

Volume: Number: 1044

Publication Date: 0/00/85 Pagination: pp 17-25

ISBN: 0-6 ISSN: 03611981 0-309-0396

Figures: 17 Fig. Tables: 2 Tab. Photos: Phots.

References: 10 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Transportation Research Board

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Available from:

Transportation Research Board Business Office

2101 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20418

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Sixteen large-scale reinforced concrete specimens without web reinforcements were tested to study the behavior of typical bridge piers subjected to deflection reversals that were large enough to cause extensive yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement. The different parameters considered included shear span-to-depth ratio, percentage of longitudinal reinforcement, frequency of the applied load, and axial compressive stresses. Each specimen was subjected to a multiple of three cycles of deflection reversals, in increments equal to the yield deflection until failure. Based on parametric studies of the experimental results, a nondimensional factor was introduced to describe the fundamental behavior of such members. The proposed characteristic factor was used to evaluate the ductility, maximum shear stress, energy absorption-dissipation capacities, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient. The three modes of failure observed were classified according to the range of the proposed factor, and also to the maximum intensity of shear stresses. Based on the experimental results, an expression was introduced to predict the equivalent flexural stiffness in the post-yielding range.

Supplementary notes: This paper appeared in Transportation Research Record N1044, Structures and Foundations.

Title: DESIGN OF AXIALLY AND LATERALLY LOADED PILES USING IN SITU TESTS: A CASE HISTORY

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Robertson, PK

Campanella, RG

Brown, PT

Grof, I

Hughes, JMO

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Canadian Geotechnical Journal

Volume: 22 Number: 4

Publication Date: 11/00/85 Pagination: pp 518-527

ISBN: ISSN: 00083674

Figures: 17 Fig. Tables: 2 Tab. Photos:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

National Research Council of Canada

Montreal Road

Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Available from:

National Research Council of Canada

Montreal Road

Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: A 915 mm diameter steel pipe pile was driven and tested by the B.C. Ministry of Transportation and Highways as part of their foundation studies for the proposed Annacis channel crossing of the Fraser River. The pile was driven open ended to a maximum depth of 94 m. The pile was tested axially to failure when the pile tip was at depths of 67, 78, and 94 m below ground surface. Following the final axial load test, the pile was loaded laterally to a total deflection at the ground surface of 150 mm. A slope indicator casing was installed in the pile to monitor the deflected shape during lateral loading. Adjacent to the pile, a piezometer-friction cone penetration test (CPT) and a full-displacement pressuremeter profile were made. Results of the axial and lateral load tests are presented along with the data from the CPT and the full-displacement pressuremeter tests. Results of several analyses using the data from the CPT and pressuremeter tests to predict the axial and lateral performance of the pile are presented. A comparison and discussion is presented between the predicted and measured axial and lateral behaviour of the pile, for which excellent agreement was found.

Title: EXPERIMENTS WITH LATERAL LOADING OF SINGLE PILES IN SAND

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Oldham, DCE

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: 8511TR184E

Publication Date: 0/00/85 Pagination: pp 121-141 Figures: 10 Fig. Tables: Photos: 2 Phot. References: 13 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Balkema (AA)

P.O. Box 1675

3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands

Available from:

Balkema (AA)

P.O. Box 1675

3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: As part of a wide ranging test programme to assess the application of centrifuge modelling techniques to piles and piled structures, a series of lateral loading tests has been undertaken using the centrifuge at the University of Manchester. Model piles, 19.05mm diameter, with various wall thicknesses, were tested at 120 rpm (52.5g) to model a prototype pile 1m diameter. The results reported in this paper are limited to those from one static and a series of cyclic tests carried out on single piles with a wall thickness of 1.22mm. It was considered important to drive the piles "in flight" to model field conditions, particularly lateral stress distributions following installation, as closely as possible. This has not been attempted in previous centrifuge model experiments. The applied load, deflection of the pile at the point of loading and bending moments down the pile were measured during the tests for subsequent analysis. The tests showed that it is possible to drive a model pile "in flight" although there are problems in protecting instrumentation during driving. The methods of numerical analysis used are shown to produce useful results. The p-y curves derived from the results are shown to have mean gradients which agree reasonably with published values. The number of the covering abstract of the symposium is IRRD 286058. (TRRL)

Supplementary notes: From the proceedings of a symposium, The Application of Centrifuge Modelling to Geotechnical Design, held at Manchester, 16-18 April 1984.

Title: INSTALLATION STUDIES FOR MODEL PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Craig, WH

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: 8511TR197E

Publication Date: 0/00/85 Pagination: pp 441-456 Figures: 8 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos: References: 27 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Balkema (AA)

P.O. Box 1675

3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands

Available from:

Balkema (AA)

P.O. Box 1675

3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: This paper discusses the modelling of single piles and pile groups in the centrifuge and considers the extent to which modelling attempts reflect field conditions. Tests are described in which model piles were installed in flight in the centrifuge. Measurements were made to assess the effect of the acceleration level at the time of installation on the load-deflection behaviour and pile capacity determined in the centrifuge. It is concluded that in sand, single pile installation should, wherever possible, be performed in flight in order to establish a stress regime around the pile which is as nearly as possible similar to that of a field prototype. The effect of lack of simularity in installation can lead to serious errors in predictions of axial capacity, with lesser effects under lateral loading whether static or cyclic. It may currently not be feasible to simulate pile group installation in the centrifuge and this must cast some doubt on all studies where significant group interactions are anticipated in sand beds. Single in flight pile installation in clay is possible but simulation of various time effects can lead to serious conflicts between the several requirements. The rate effects observed on installation have significance in the analysis of in flight cone penetration tests used for determining the strength properties of model beds. The number of the covering abstract of the symposium is IRRD 286058. (TRRL)

Supplementary notes: From the proceedings of a symposium, The Application of Centrifuge Modelling to Geotechnical Design, held at Manchester, 16-18 April 1984.

Title: BEHAVIOR OF PILES AND PILE GROUPS UNDER LATERAL LOAD. FINAL REPORT

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Reese, LC

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Federal Highway Administration

Report No: FHWA/RD-85/106 FCP 35P2-192

Period Covered: 830800-8312

Publication Date: 3/00/86 Pagination: 311p

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Texas University, Austin

Center for Transportation Research

Austin, TX 78712

Publisher/Corporate Author 2:

Federal Highway Administration

Turner Fairbank Hwy Res Cntr, 6300 Georgetown Pike

McLean, VA 22101

Available from:

National Technical Information Service

5285 Port Royal Road

Springfield, VA 22161

Order Number: PB86-238466/AS

Abstract Information

Abstract: Several methods of analysis and design of piles under lateral loading are in use. Presumptive values that suggest allowable loads, but very conservative ones, are included in some manuals of practice. Batter piles may be employed with an assumption, not entirely correct, that no lateral load is taken by vertical piles. Several rational methods, in which the equations of mechanics are satisfied, have been proposed. The methods of Broms and of Poulos and his coworkers are reviewed. The rational method utilizes different equations to solve the governing differential equation along with the use of nonlinear curves to describe the soil response. Curves showing soil resistance p as a function of pile deflection y have been recommended for several types of soil and pile loading. Case studies are presented where results from analysis are compared with those from experiment. Design recommendations are made and needed research is outlined.

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

DOT-FH-61-84-Y-30005 Contract

Title: FULL-SCALE CYCLIC DYNAMIC LATERAL PILE RESPONSES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Ting, JM

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Journal of Geotechnical Engineering

Volume: 113 Number: 1

Report No: ASCE Paper 21158

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 1/00/87 Pagination: pp 30-45

ISBN: ISSN: 07339410

Figures: 14 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices: 2 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Available from:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: In the design of vertical piles subjected to lateral dynamic loads, the lateral soil resistance is often represented as a series of discrete springs, each with a nonlinear resistance-deflection p-y curve. Owing to the lack of dynamic test data, it is common to use static load results, even for dynamic loading. The results from a recent full-scale cyclic dynamic pile test series in sand have been reduced to yield dynamic p-y curves and indicate that the current oil industry recommendations overestimate the dynamic lateral resistance, especially at large deflection levels. Strain-softening, partial liquefaction, and gapping effects were observed. Variations in dynamic stiffness and damping capacity appear more dependent on nonlinear behavior than on the frequency of excitation.

Title: PERFORMANCE OF PROPPED AND CANTILEVERED RIGID WALLS. DISCUSSION

Foreign Language:

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 287270

Publication Title: Geotechnique

Volume: 35 Number: 4

Publication Date: 12/00/85 Pagination: pp 533-548

ISBN: ISSN: 00168505

Figures: 13 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 19 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Institution of Civil Engineers

1-7 Great George Street, Westminster

London SW1P 3AA, England

Available from:

Institution of Civil Engineers

1-7 Great George Street, Westminster

London SW1P 3AA, England

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: This article takes the form of a discussion by a number of participants mainly on various aspects of the behaviour of propped and cantilevered rigid walls. Reference is made in the discussion to a number of papers, IRRD numbers of which are: 281208, 281371, 271617, 251362, 283429, 262789, 247424, 201379, 241600. (TRRL)

Title: CENTRIFUGAL MODEL STUDIES ON LATERALLY LOADED PILE GROUPS IN SAND.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING, SAN FRANCISCO, 12-16 AUGUST 1985

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kulkarni, KR

Chandrasekaran, VS

King, GJW

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: 8603TR151E

Publication Date: 0/00/85 Pagination: pp 1113-16 ISBN: 90 6191 562 7 ISSN: Figures: 7 Fig. Tables: Photos: References: 10 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

Balkema (AA)

P.O. Box 1675

3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands

Available from:

Balkema (AA)

P.O. Box 1675

3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The results of centrifugal model experiments conducted on single, two- and three-pile groups in medium dense, dry sand are presented and discussed. Two loading directions are considered for each group together with two and three diameter spacings. The results of laterally loaded single piles are compared with those estimated on the basis of subgrade reaction and elastic continuum theories in which the soil stiffness is assumed proportional to depth. Analysis of two-pile groups based on elastic continuum model and using interaction factors showed that even at small loads the observed values of deflections were larger than the computed ones. In the two-pile and three-pile groups the effective soil resistance to the rear piles was found to be diminished by interaction effects. For the covering abstract of the conference see IRRD 287689. (Author/TRRL)

Title: ELASTIC-CREEP ANALYSIS OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Kuppusamy, T

Buslov, A

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Journal of Geotechnical Engineering

Volume: 113 Number: 4

Report No: Paper No. 21410

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 4/00/87 Pagination: pp 351-365

ISBN: ISSN: 07339410

Figures: 23 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 12 Ref. Appendices: 1 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Available from:

American Society of Civil Engineers

345 East 47th Street

New York, NY 10017

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: A simple one-dimensional finite element procedure is used to analyze lateral piles in clayey soils. The analysis included a creep law for the soil based on a probabilistic model and allows for stress-dependent creep. A field problem is analyzed taking into account the variation in the soil properties with depth. The numerical predictions are compared with field pile load test data and the creep deflections are found to increase nonlinearly with the applied loads. The depth variation of the soil properties is found to be important in the prediction of deflections of a pile-soil system.

Title: FLEXIBILITY COEFFICIENTS AND INTERACTION FACTORS FOR PILE GROUP ANALYSIS

Foreign Language:

Author(s):

Sharnouby, BE

Novak, M

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Canadian Geotechnical Journal

Volume: 23 Number: 4

Publication Date: 11/00/86 Pagination: pp 441-450

ISBN: ISSN: 0083674

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1:

National Research Council of Canada

Montreal Road

Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Available from:

National Research Council of Canada

Montreal Road Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Flexibility coefficients of single piles and interaction factors established for groups of two piles are presented to facilitate analysis of arbitrary pile groups exposed to static horizontal loads. Such an analysis may yield pile group flexibility, stiffness, deflection, and distribution of loads on individual piles. The data given are complete in that they include horizontal translation, rotation in the vertical plane, and cross effects between the two, making it possible to establish complete stiffness and flexibility matrices of pile groups provided with either rigid caps or arbitrarily flexible caps. Homogeneous, parabolic, and linear (Gibson's) soil profiles are considered and the piles may haves a free length sticking above the ground surface. The methods of group evaluation based on superposition of interaction factors are reviewed and compared and numerical examples are given.

Title: EVALUATION OF LATERAL COEFFICIENT OF SUBGRADE REACTION USING THE DILATOMETER TEST

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Borden, RH Gabr, MA Hsu, C-H Lien, W-C

Publication Information:

Report No: FHWA/NC-87/001

Period Covered: 8707-8706

Publication Date: 9/00/87 Pagination: 134p

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: 28 Ref. Appendices: 1 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: North Carolina State University, Raleigh Center for Transportation Engineering Studies, P.O. Box 7908 Raleigh, NC 27695

Publisher/Corporate Author 2: North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Highways, P.O. Box 25201 Raleigh, NC 27611

Publisher/Corporate Author 3: Federal Highway Administration 400 7th Street, SW Washington, DC 20590

Available from: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Order Number: PB88-188198/AS

Abstract Information

Abstract: The Winkler or subgrade reaction approach is one of the most common techniques for the analysis of laterally loaded piles. The Winkler model simulates the soil-pile interaction mechanism by simply relating the pier deflection at a point to the soil pressure at that point, through a constant of subgrade reaction, referred to as K sub ho. The subgrade reaction concept provides a rational approach which enables the description of the nonlinear soil-structure interaction behavior of the problem readily, if only, approximately. In practice, the K sub ho values are used in the formulation of load-deformation curves, usually termed p-y curves. The p-y curves, developed as a function of depth, are used in conjunction with several analytical methods which model the pile using beam theory to predict the response of piles subjected to lateral loads. The use of the Marchetti dilatometer test (DMT) to estimate the coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction, K sub ho, was investigated. A model is proposed for the evaluation of K sub ho in cohesionless soils. The proposed methodology utilizes test data obtained using the NCSU calibration chamber. The calibration chamber was used for testing K sub o consolidated dry sand specimens subjected to lateral compression loading. Concurrently, the flat dilatometer was penetrated into the 1m diameter by 1m high specimens and DMT profiles were obtained. A field study was carried out to assess the applicability of the developed procedure. The K sub ho values obtained using the proposed model were used to formulate p-y curves for drilled piers tested in the field. Using these p-y curves as input data for the computer program "LTBASE", good correlation between predicted and measured load-deflection behavior was achieved.

Title: LATERAL RESISTANCE AND DEFLECTION OF FLEXIBLE PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Meyerhof, GG Sastry, VVRN Yalcin, AS

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Canadian Geotechnical Journal

Volume: 25 Number: 3

Publication Date: 8/00/88 Pagination: pp 511-522

ISBN: ISSN: 00083674

Figures: 15 Fig. Tables: 2 Tab. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: National Research Council of Canada Montreal Road Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Available from: National Research Council of Canada Montreal Road Ottawa, ONo K1A 0R6, Canada

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The ultimate lateral resistance and the groundline lateral deflections under working loads of freestanding single model piles and small pile groups, of various materials and different embedded lengths, subjected to horizontal load have been investigated. The test results of piles of various stiffnesses in sand and clay are compared with theoretical analyses based on the concept of an effective embedment depth in terms of the behaviour of equivalent rigid piles.

Title: LATERAL LOAD BEHAVIOR OF PILE GROUP IN SAND

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Brown, DA Morrison, C Reese, LC

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Journal of Geotechnical Engineering

Volume: 114 Number: 11

Publication Date: 11/00/88 Pagination: pp 1261-26

ISBN: ISSN: 07339410

Figures: Figs. Tables: Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices: 2 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017

Available from: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: A study was made of the behavior of a closely spaced group of piles in sand when subjected to cyclic lateral loading. The research included a large-scale load test of a group of 9 steel pipe piles that was instrumented to measure the distribution of load to the top of each pile and bending stresses along the length of each pile. A similar load test was also performed on an isolated single pile for comparison. This paper describes the test arrangement and loading procedure, and summarizes the most significant experimental results. Several important aspects of the behavior of pile groups in sand are identified by these measurements. Conclusions drawn from the study are presented and refer to the following: deflection of the piles; reduced efficiency of the group under lateral load; bending moments of the piles; effect of cyclic loading in two directions; densification due to cyclic loading; and the design of pile groups for lateral loading.

Title: EFFECT OF VERTICAL LOAD ON FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Jain, NK Ranjan, G Ramasamy, G

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 811864

Publication Title: Geotechnical Engineering

Volume: 18 Number: 2

Publication Date: 12/00/87 Pagination: 185-204

References: 17 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Southeast Asian Society of Soil Engineering P.O. Box 2754 Bangkok, Thailand

Available from: Southeast Asian Society of Soil Engineering P.O. Box 2754 Bangkok, Thailand

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The state of the art is discussed in some detail and it is brought out with adequate evidence that whereas the analytical investigations suggest an increase in lateral deflection when a vertical pile is axially loaded some published experimental investigations, both field tests and laboratory model tests, suggest a reduction in lateral deflection due to the presence of vertical load. The possible reasons for this contradiction are hypothesised. One reason is the reduction in tensile stress for axially loaded concrete sections. The restraint to the pile head imposed by the loading device used for the application of a vertical load is suspected to be another cause and this is investigated in detail. For this purpose, a loading device was designed and fabricated with facilitated application of a vertical load without causing restraint to the pile head. Using the device, tests on fully and partially embedded model piles subjected to vertical and lateral loads were carried out. The results show that the presence of vertical load causes an increase in lateral deflection which is in agreement with this trend predicted by analytical methods. This confirms that the restraint offered by the loading device used for the application of vertical load, was in fact, one of the causes of the reduced lateral deflection observed by many past investigators. (TRRL)

Title: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE IN PILE DESIGN

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 808868

Report No: R 55 9

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 12/00/87 Pagination: 122p

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Sydney University, Australia School of Civil and Mining Engineering, Parramatta Road Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia

Available from: Sydney University, Australia School of Civil and Mining Engineering, Parramatta Road Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The procedures used for pile design are classified into three categories: empirical, simplified but theory based, and site specific advanced theory based methods. The various aspects of pile behaviour which may need to be considered are reviewed and design procedures in each category are reviewed for each aspect. In many cases involving conventional loadings, the second category of design procedure is often quite adequate, but for problems involving special loading conditions, such as cyclic loading or loading arising from soil movements, the use of more sophisticated methods of analysis may be necessary to obtain an economical and safe design. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of each category of design in actual field cases (Author/ TRRL).

Title: THE USE OF ELECTRO-LEVELS ON LATERALLY LOADED PRECAST DRIVEN PILES AT STRETTON

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Price, G Wardle, IF

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 811341

Publication Title: TRRL Contractor Report

Report No: CR 48

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/87 Pagination: 30p

ISBN: ISSN: 02667045

References: 4 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Old Wokingham Road Crowthorne RG11 6AU, Berkshire, England

Available from: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Old Wokingham Road Crowthorne RG11 6AU, Berkshire, England

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: During pile testing at the site of a new bridge near Stretton the Building Research Establishment carried out trials to determine whether electro-levels (e-ls) installed in a tube, driven as close as possible to a pile that was subsequently loaded laterally, could be used to monitor the pile's below ground deflected shape. The results showed that the pile head deflection calculated from the e-l results agreed reasonably well with the deflection monitored by conventional above ground movement measuring systems. Bending strains deduced from the rotations monitored by the e-ls suggested that the pile failed as the result of the formation of a plastic hinge, or hinges at a load of 60 to 66 kN. Use of Broms design chart confirmed that this was a reasonable estimate of the ultimate lateral capacity of the pile. It is considered that the method provided meaningful information on pile performance and with further development would offer an inexpensive way of instrumenting commonly used piles that would otherwise by very difficult to instrument. (TRRL)

Title: COMPARISON OF VERTICAL AND SHALLOW ANGLED RAKED PILES UNDER LATERAL LOAD

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Price, G Wardle, IF

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Publication Title: TRRL CONTRACTOR REPORT

Volume: Number: CR 4

Report No: 5

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/88 Pagination: 122P

ISBN: ISSN: 02667045

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: TRANSPORT AND ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY OLD WOKINGHAM ROAD Crowthorne, Berkshire, United Kingdom

Abstract Information

Abstract: This report gives the results of field loading tests carried out on vertical and shallow-angle raked, bored cast-in-place piles founded in London clay. The piles were 0.17 m in diameter and had embedded lengths of 4.5 m. During the tests increasing levels of static and cyclic lateral load were applied to a single vertical pile, a single pile raked at 10 degrees, a bent of vertical piles and a bent of one vertical and one raked pile (10 degrees). The effect of the loadings on the performance of the piles under lateral and vertical loads was examined. The below-ground deformations of the piles and the loads in the piles were monitored by instruments developed by bre. The information obtained enabled the performances of the piles under lateral load to be compared in terms of deflections, bending moments and soil reactions and under vertical load in terms of deflections and load distribution in the piles. Instruments installed in the soil close to the piles enabled in-situ estimates to be made of the soil stiffness. The procedures for processing the information obtained from the new instruments into pile performance and soil data are outlined. The results from the investigation were used to assess several design procedures for laterally loaded piles. Three linear elastic and one non-linear (p-y) computer based analysis methods were assessed. The elastic methods varied from a relatively sophisticated finite element package that allowed the soil to be modelled using 8 different stiffnesses that could be varied both radially and with depth, to simpler methods that only allowed stiffness variations with depth. Soil parameters determined directly from the instrumentation.

Title: LOAD TESTING OF DEEP FOUNDATIONS. THE PLANNING, DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF PILE LOAD TESTS

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Crowther, CL

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Publication Date: 0/00/88 Pagination: XI+233P

ISBN: 0-471-60904-8 ISSN:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: JOHN WILEY & SONS BAFFINS LANE Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom

Abstract Information

Abstract: The author lists the reasons for load testing foundations. A brief chapter is devoted to the payment of load tests. Tests concerned with determining capacities and/or deflections under compressive, tensile, lateral or torsional loadings can be divided into: controlled stress tests, controlled strain tests and incremental equilibrium tests. Details are given of pile load test planning, e.g. Visual inspection of pile installation, load test reaction systems and safety considerations. Time effects in load testing are discussed as regards driving resistance and bearing capacity of piles. The relation between pile movement and developed pile capacity is analyzed, and instruments for measuring both applied load and corresponding settlement are described. In the analysis of load-transfer data, the pile is divided into a number of segments, with a telltale located at the division between each segment. Examples of load-transfer calculation from telltale data are given together with estimations of load-transfer from cyclic compression tests. The design of test beams, tie-down straps, and connections to anchor piles is outlined as is the preparation of driving logs, records of test pile installation and the load test report. Some insight is provided into the factors influencing the acceptance of test data and subsequent design and construction decisions. Two additional types of load tests -the horizontal and lateral load test, and the tension or uplift load test -are described. Details are appended of the standard building codes and the ASTM test standards.

Title: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE IN PILE DESIGN

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Poulos, HG

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Publication Title: TRANSACTIONS OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS, AUST IL ENGINEERING

Volume: CE30 Number: 3

Publication Date: 10/00/88 Pagination: 107-37

ISBN: ISSN: 08190259

Abstract Information

Abstract: The procedures used for pile design are classified into three categories: empirical, simplified but theory based, and site specific advanced theory based methods. The various aspects of pile behaviour which may need to be considered are reviewed and design procedures in each category are reviewed for each aspect. In many cases involving conventional loadings, the second category of design procedure is often quite adequate, but for problems involving special loading conditions, such as cyclic loading or loading arising from soil movements, the use of more sophisticated methods of analysis may be necessary to obtain an economical and safe design. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of each category of design in actual field cases (a). See also IRRD 808848 and 808868.

Title: RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILING

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Folse, MD

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Journal of Structural Engineering

Volume: 115 Number: 5

Publication Date: 5/00/89 Pagination: pp 1011-20

ISBN: ISSN: 07339445

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices: 2 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017

Available from: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: This paper describes how the probability of failure of a laterally loaded pile may be determined using the design point method, and details a FORTRAN program which executes the procedure. The research focuses on the development of the reliability analysis procedure. Using this method, the soil reaction corresponding to a given deflection at a specific depth is treated as a random variable. The method presented is a significnt step toward insuring the optimum design of the piles. The details of the study are described.

Title: LATERAL STIFFNESS OF BRIDGE PILE FOUNDATIONS: LOAD TESTS ON NEWMANS BRIDGE

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Wood, JH Phillips, MH

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Publication Title: REPORT

Volume: Number: ST 8

Report No: 7/2

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 10/00/87 Pagination: 56P

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: MILLS AND WOOD, CONSULTING ENGINEERS PO BOX 44-167 Lower Hutt, New Zealand

Abstract Information

Abstract: This report described the static lateral load tests carried out during the construction of the newmans bridge to determine the lateral stiffness of the cylinder foundations at each of the two piers. The bridge was a three span structure with precast prestressed i section concrete beams and single stem circular reinforced concrete columns. Each of the pier foundations consisted of a single 1.8 metre diametre bored cylinder founded on papa (a weak siltstone) with overlying layers of alluvial sands and gravels. The loading rig was designed to apply a static horizontal force of not less than 2.5 kn load at: a) pier top level using a tension system between adjacent piers; and b) the tops of the cylinder foundations. The following parameters were monitored: a) applied load; b) lateral deflection at the base and top of both piers; c) rotation at the base and top of both piers; d) column crack widths. Measured displacements and rotations at the tops of the piers and cylinders indicated that the foundations were significantly stiffer than predicted by normal analysis methods for pile foundations. The measured stiffnesses of the pier columns were in close agreement with computed values based on cracked section properties.

Title: LATERALLY LOADED CAST-IN-DRILLED-HOLE PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Shen, CK Bang, S Desalvatore, M Poran, CJ

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Record

Volume: Number: 1191

Publication Date: 0/00/88 Pagination: pp 155-165

ISBN: 0-309-04802-8 ISSN: 03611981

Figures: 5 Fig. Tables: 4 Tab. Photos: 5 Phot.

References: 22 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Transportation Research Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

Available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The behavior of cast-in-drilled-hole pile has been investigated in detail with an instrumented model test pile embedded in either level or sloping ground of sand or silty clay soil. Upslope and downslope as well as parallel directional lateral loads were applied to the model test pile to measure the lateral resistance and the load-deflection relationship. Parameters such as the embedment length, the slope of the ground, the distance from the edge of the slope, and the cyclic loading were included in the study.

Supplementary notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1191, Culverts and Tiebacks.

Title: P-Y CURVE DATA FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES IN SHALE AND SANDSTONE. FINAL REPORT

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Frantzen, J Stratton, FW

Publication Information:

Source of Document: National Technical Information Service

Report No: FHWA/KS-87/2

Period Covered: 8507-8711

Publication Date: 11/00/87 Pagination: 81p

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Kansas Department of Transportation State Office Building, 2300 Van Buren Street Topeka, KS 66612

Publisher/Corporate Author 2: Federal Highway Administration 400 7th Street, SW Washington, DC 20590

Available from: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Order Number: PB89-232524/XAB

Abstract Information

Abstract: A total of eight 8.6 inch diameter, 15 foot long model piles socketed in Pennsylvanian Age sandstone and shale were tested under lateral load. The lateral load was applied by a manually operated 50 ton hydraulic jack set between two steel load transfer saddles. The applied load was measured with an electronic load cell. Pile deflection under load was measured with coaxially mounted inclinometers for subsurface measurement and dial gauges for above ground movement. Each pile was subjected to a series of 3 ton cyclic and up to 20 ton static lateral loads. The nondimensional method for analysis of laterally loaded piles was used to develop a set of p-y curves for each pile. The resulting p-y curves were used with computer program COM624 to check the validity of the experimental curves. The experimental curves were used to develop a "typical" p-y curve for sandstone and sandy shale. The tests also demonstrated the applicability of the stiff clay above the water table p-y curves for the prediction of lateral deflections of piles in low and moderate strength clay shales. The uninstrumented pile lateral load test described in the report has proven to be a very useful method of obtaining p-y curve data at minimum cost.

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

86-1 HP&R

Title: THE PERFORMANCE OF ROCK SOCKETTED PILES IN LOW STRENGTH SILTSTONE

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Sales, AA

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 814684

Publication Title: Australian Geomechanics

Volume: Number: 16

Publication Date: 12/00/88 Pagination: pp 9-18

ISBN: ISSN: 08189110

References: 8 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Institution of Engineers, Australia 11 National Circuit Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Available from: Institution of Engineers, Australia 11 National Circuit Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Access to the channel island power station near darwin in the northern territory required the construction of two 500 m long bridges. Foundations for the bridges consist of large diameter rock socketted piles founded in subvertically bedded low strength siltstone. A test pile was constructed at each bridge site to assess the performance under axial (tension and compression) loading and lateral loading. Results from the channel island test indicated a backfigured rock modulus of twice the measured pressuremeter modulus from the compression test, and approximately equal values from the lateral test. Elizabeth river test results were less consistent with a backfigured modulus from the test up to ten times the measured pressuremeter modulus, interaction between the pile and reaction system affecting results. (Author/TRRL)

Title: THE PERFORMANCE OF ROCK SOCKETTED PILES IN LOW STRENGTH SILTSTONE

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Sales, AA

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Publication Title: Australian Geomechanics

Volume: Number: 16

Publication Date: 12/00/88 Pagination: pp 9-18

ISBN: ISSN: 08189110

References: 8 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Institution of Engineers, Australia 11 National Circuit Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Available from: Institution of Engineers, Australia 11 National Circuit Barton, A.C.T. 2600, Australia

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Access to the Channel Island power station near Darwin in the Northern Territory required the construction of two 500 m long bridges. Foundations for the bridges consist of large diameter rock socketted piles founded in subvertically bedded low strength siltstone. A test pile was constructed at each bridge site to assess the performance under axial (tension and compression) loading and lateral loading. Results from the channel island test indicated a backfigured rock modulus of twice the measured pressuremeter modulus from the compression test, and approximately equal values from the lateral test. Elizabeth river test results were less consistent with a backfigured modulus from the test up to ten times the measured pressuremeter modulus, interaction between the pile and reaction system affecting results. (Author/TRRL)

Title: NON LINEAR ANALYSIS OF TRANSVERSALLY LOADED REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE

Foreign Title: NELINEARNA ANALIZA POPRECNO OPTERECENOG ARMIRANOBETONSKOG SIPA

Foreign Language: Serbian

Author(s): Stevanovic, S Lazovic, M

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Source Data: IRRD 818762

Publication Title: Izgradnja

Volume: 41 Number: 5

Publication Date: 0/00/87 Pagination: pp 5-10

References: 10 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Savez Gradjevinskih Inzenjera i Tehnicara Srbije Kneza Milosa 7 Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia

Available from: Savez Gradjevinskih Inzenjera i Tehnicara Srbije Kneza Milosa 7 Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The article analyzes the behaviour of a pile subjected to lateral loading using the non linear finite element method. In the statistical analysis of a laterally loaded pile, it is possible to include non-ideal soil and pile properties. The soil is approximated to a system with continuously distributed springs identified by a set of p-y curves. The reinforced concrete pile is represented by the fe beam which has non linear flexural characteristics. For the purpose of computerized calculation of the non linear fe equations, the method of arc-length is used. (TRRL)

Title: LOAD-DEFLECTION RESPONSE OF PILES IN SAND: PERFORMANCE PREDICTION USING THE DMT

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Borden, RH Lawter, RS, Jr

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Record

Volume: Number: 1235

Publication Date: 0/00/89 Pagination: pp 79-88

ISBN: 0-309-04962-8 ISSN: 03611981

Figures: 18 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 16 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Transportation Research Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

Available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The accurate prediction of the lateral load deflection response of piles is highly dependent on the proper modeling of the lateral soil stiffness. Recent papers have presented models that incorporate data obtained from the Marchetti dilatometer (DMT) to develop p-y curves. As the DMT data are normally obtained at 8-in. depth intervals, these models provide a nearly continuous profile of lateral soil response. This paper presents a comparison of performance predictions made using three of these models with the measured response of two 24-in.-square, 25-ft-long, prestressed concrete piles in sand. The test piles were jetted the first 12 ft and driven the remaining 13 ft into the coastal plain deposits of eastern North Carolina. The measured load-deflection response of the two piles was very similar, and although none of the models that were investigated explicitly permits the consideration of installation effects, the measured response was found to be intermediate between that predicted by a model developed for driven piles and that predicted by a model applied to drilled piers.

Supplementary notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1235, In Situ Testing of Soil Properties for Transportation.

Title: ANALYSIS OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES EMBEDDED IN LAYERED FROZEN SOIL

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Crowther, GS

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Journal of Geotechnical Engineering

Volume: 116 Number: 7

Publication Date: 7/00/90 Pagination: pp 1137-52

ISBN: ISSN: 07339410

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices: 3 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017-2398

Available from: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017-2398 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: This paper presents frozen soil shear strength and strain criteria used in construction of p-y curves for lateral pile design analysis, using the commercially available computer program COM624. The cirteria account for duration of load, soil temperature, and water content. Deflections calculated using these criteria are compared with results of pile load tests performed in Canada. It was found that the deflections calculated are greater and correlate more conservatively with the deflections measured in the pile load tests. The details of the study and findings are presented.

Title: COMPARISON OF AN ELASTOPLASTIC QUASI THREE DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES WITH FIELD TESTS. NUMERICAL MODELS IN GEOMECHANICS. NUMOG III. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM HELD IN NIAGARA FALLS, CANADA, 8-11 MAY 1989

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Kooijman, AP

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Publication Date: 0/00/89 Pagination: pp 675-82

ISBN: 1-85166-346-0 ISSN:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Limited Crown House, Linton Road N/A, Essex IG11 8JU, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: The quasi three-dimensional model that is used in this paper is based on a substructuring technique. It therefore allows extensive meshes of laterally loaded piles and pile groups to be analyzed, even on a small computer. An interface element is described for modelling the pile-soil contact behavior, which is essential for making realistic predictions and comparisons with pile tests. Both slip, debonding and rebonding under cyclic loading are captured by the model. The applicability of the method for practical purposes is demonstrated by comparing field tests on lateral pile response with the results of the model.(a) for the covering abstract of this conference see IRRD 824029.

Title: P-Y CURVES FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES DERIVED FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT MODEL. NUMERICAL MODELS IN GEOMECHANICS. NUMOG III. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM HELD IN NIAGARA FALLS, CANADA, 8-11 MAY 1989

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Brown, DA Chine-feng SHIE Kumar, M

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Publication Date: 0/00/89 Pagination: pp 683-90

ISBN: 1-85166-346-0 ISSN:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Limited Crown House, Linton Road N/A, Essex IG11 8JU, England

Abstract Information

Abstract: The design of piles for lateral loads is typically performed using the beam-on-elastic subgrade approach in which the soil response is modeled as a series of discrete nonlinear springs (p-y curves). The p-y curves used in design are based upon empirical rules derived from field experiments. In this study, p-y curves are derived from the bending moments in a pile from a three-dimensional finite element model. A simple elastic-plastic soil model is used as a first attempt at modelling the problem of undrained static loading in clay coils. The results provide insight into the patterns of shear deformation in the soil around the pile and demonstrate the influence of the ground surface upon p-y response. The three-dimensional finite element model is seen to provide a means for investigating effects such as pile-soil-pile interaction in laterally loaded groups, but improved constitutive models for soil and correllations with field experiments are needed.(a) for the covering abstract of this conference see IRRD 824029.

Title: LATERAL LOAD TEST ON DRIVEN PILE FOOTINGS

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Abcarius, JL

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Record

Volume: Number: 1290

Publication Date: 0/00/91 Pagination: pp 139-144

ISBN: 0-309-05067-7 ISSN: 03611981

Figures: 7 Fig. Tables: 1 Tab. Photos:

References: 1 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Transportation Research Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

Available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake provided an ideal time and situation to perform for the first time, at no installation cost, a full scale lateral load test on a group of driven piles in typical bridge footings at the Cypress Street Viaduct. Since these foundations were no longer going to be used, we were able to load them laterally to failure and record load versus deflection. Testing was performed at two different locations. Location #1 consisted of 60 ft long piles in a clayey (bay mud) material, and location #2 consisted of 15 ft long piles in sandy silt. Preliminary results were very encouraging. Lateral pile capacities were observed at 1/4 in. deflection, which greatly exceed the Bridge Design Specifications criteria. Reduced data produced a range from 17 kips to approximately 26 kips per pile in these two soil types. Considering that we use 5 kips/pile in today's design criteria for this type of pile, one can readily see that if this number were increased to just 10 kips, the number of piles required for lateral forces would be significantly reduced, thereby achieving an appreciable reduction in cost for foundations of this type. Pile capacities are correlated with appropriate soil parameters for the two soil types. Bridge Design Specifications are being proposed to take advantage of the increased lateral load capacities obtained in this research project.

Supplementary notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1290, Third Bridge Engineering Conference, March 10-13, 1991, Denver, Colorado, Volume 2.

Title: THE EFFECT OF SURCHARGE LOADING ADJACENT TO PILES

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Springman, SM Bolton, MD

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport and Road Research Laboratory

Report No: CR 196

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/90 Pagination: 45p

ISBN: ISSN: 02667045

References: Refs. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Old Wokingham Road Crowthorne RG11 6AU, Berkshire, England

Available from: Transport and Road Research Laboratory Old Wokingham Road Crowthorne RG11 6AU, Berkshire, England

Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The objective of this report is to present an approach to designing pile foundations, embedded at depth in a stiff substratum and influenced by adjacent loads applied on the surface of soft superficial soils. The effect of lateral thrust on the piles in an upper soft clay layer due to simulated embankment construction is examined, and soil-pile interaction mechanisms are identified herein for behaviour both at working load and at ultimate lateral capacity. A combination of centrifuge model testing and three dimensional finite element analysis was used to investigate the performance of a row of free headed piles and of a pile group, for different pile and foundation geometries, in terms of changes of bending moment, deflection and lateral pressure due to a uniform surcharge. An approximate formula for lateral thrust in the soft clay layer is developed, based on the differential movement between the piles and the surrounding soil, which accounts for pile spacing, relative pile-soil stiffness and the degree of soil strength mobilisation. This loading function has been incorporated in a computer program, SIMPLE, which calculates the pile bending moment and deflection profiles for long piles and pile groups. The algorithm has been calibrated against the experimental and numerical results, and design charts are produced for the free headed pile case. A design procedure is recommended, and illustrated by a worked example, for piled full-height bridge abutments and other facilities which feature passive lateral loading of piles by a nearby surcharge. The work described in this report was carried out under contract by Cambridge University for the Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL). (TRRL)

Title: ANALYSIS OF PILES UNDER LATERAL LOAD - COMPUTER PROGRAM COM624P FOR THE MICROCOMPUTER

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Wang, S-T Reese, LC

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Federal Highway Administration

Report No: FHWA-SA-91-002

Period Covered:

Publication Date: 0/00/91 Pagination: 221p

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Ensoft, Incorporated P.O. Box 180348 Austin, TX 78718

Publisher/Corporate Author 2: Federal Highway Administration Turner Fairbank Hwy Res Cntr, 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, VA 22101

Available from: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Order Number: PB91-218552

Abstract Information

Abstract: Computer Program COM624P has been developed for use in the analysis of stresses and deflection of piles or drilled shafts under lateral loads. The program is especially written for highway engineers who wish to run the analysis on microcomputers. The technology on which the program is based is the widely-used p-y curve method. The program solves the equations giving pile deflection, rotation, bending moment, and shear by using iterative procedures because of the nonlinear response of the soil. The program provides a user-friendly/menu-driven input and a graphics output in microcomputer environment. Several new features are included in the program such as: generating p-y curves for rock, capability of analysis of piles in sloping ground, improved solution for multi-layered soils, and a variety of boundary conditions at the pile head for selection. The user documentation provides detailed information to enable the user to employ the program conveniently and effectively. The documentation consists of three parts: Part I, Users Guide; Part II, Engineering Background; and Part III, Systems Maintenance.

Funding information

Contract/Grant Number: Funding type:

DTFH61-88-C-00101 Contract

Title: RESERVE CAPACITY DESIGN METHOD (RCDM) FOR DEEPWATER PILED FOUNDATIONS

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Audibert, JME Mueller, JL Bamford, SR

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal & Ocean Eng

Volume: 118 Number: 1

Publication Date: 1/00/92 Pagination: pp 32-42

ISBN: ISSN: 0733950X

Figures: Figs. Tables: Tabs. Photos:

References: Refs. Appendices: 2 App.

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017-2398

Available from: American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017-2398 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: A new design methodology for long offshore piles is described. The reserve capacity design method (RCDM) was developed to normalize the results of axial load-deflection analyses that more closely replicate the actual behavior of piles subjected to cyclic loads. The five steps of the analysis of which the method consists, is described. An example problem is described to demonstrate the flexibility and power of the RCDM. The method allows the designer to fulfill the presently accepted industry standard of API RP 2T with a rational and explicit basis.

Title: SUBGRADE MODULUS OF LATERALLY LOADED PILES IN CLAYS

Foreign Language:

Author(s): Wong, DO

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Record

Volume: Number: 1331

Publication Date: 0/00/91 Pagination: pp 67-78

ISBN: 0-309-05168-1 ISSN: 03611981

Figures: 13 Fig. Tables: 7 Tab. Photos:

References: 12 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Transportation Research Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

Available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Pile-soil interaction of laterally loaded piles may be characterized by either linear subgrade modulus methods or the nonlinear load transfer relationships, termed p-y curves. The selection of a subgrade modulus to analyze lateral behavior of piles relies heavily on individual judgment because the subgrade modulus itself is a function of pile deflection. Analyses of laterally loaded piles by means of p-y curves often require extensive numerical procedures on a digital computer. A concept of equivalent subgrade modulus, which incorporates the nonlinear nature of the p-y model, is derived from a parametric study of the effects of pile-soil stiffness under three well-known clay criteria: soft clay and stiff clay above and below the water table. Design curves of equivalent subgrade modulus versus a dimensionless lateral load factor are developed. A design procedure to predict maximum deflection and maximum moment of laterally loaded piles in clays is proposed and used to predict published field test data.

Supplementary notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1331, Integrity Testing of Foundations 1991.

Title: MODELING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PILES AND SOIL NAILS BEHIND A BRIDGE ABUTMENT

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Federal Highway Administration

Publication Date: 0/00/00 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: The principal objective is to determine the magnitude of lateral loads and deflections imposed on the supporting piles at the Swift-Delta Interchange as a result of removal of the 19 feet high and 256 feet long fill slope and to address FHWA and ODOT concerns.

Performed by: Oregon Department of Transportation Address: 140 Transportation Building Salem, OR 97310

Status: Active

Notice Date: Aug 13, 1993 Contract Date:

Start Date: Jul 28, 1992 Completion Date: Dec 31, 1993 Est.

Fiscal information

Total Dollars: 24350

Funded by: Federal Highway Administration Address: 400 7th Street, SW Washington, DC 20590

Responsible Individual: Adams, M

Title: ANALYSIS OF THE PILE-SOIL-NAILED WALL INTERACTION FOR THE SWIFT- DELTA INTERCHANGE PROJECT

Publication Information:

Publication Date: 0/00/00 Pagination:

Abstract Information

Abstract: THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE IS TO DETERMINE THE MAGNITUDE OF LATERAL LOADS AND DEFLECTIONS IMPOSED ON THE SUPPORTING PILES AT THE SWIFT-DELTA INTERCHANGE AS A RESULT OF REMOVAL OF THE 19 FEET HIGH AND 256 FEET LONG FILL SLOPE.

Performed by: Portland State University Address: POB 751 Portland, OR 97207

Investigator Phone: 503-725-3225

Status: Active

Notice Date: Nov 4, 1993 Contract Date:

Start Date: Aug 15, 1992 Completion Date:

Fiscal information

Total Dollars: 48700

Funded by: Oregon Department of Transportation Address: 140 Transportation Building Salem, OR 97310

Responsible Individual: Smith, T

Title: THREE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PILE GROUPS UNDER LATERAL LOADING

Foreign Language: ENGLISH

Author(s): SELBY, AR ARTA, MR

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport Research Laboratory (TRL)

Source Data: 9305TR121E

Publication Title: COMPUTERS & STRUCTURES

Volume: 40 Number: 5

Publication Date: 0/00/91 Pagination: 1329-36

ISBN: ISSN: 0045-7949

References: 13 Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: PERGAMON PRESS HEADINGTON HILL HALL OXFORD, OX3 0BW UNITED KINGDOM

Abstract Information

Abstract: The analysis of a group of foundation piles under horizontal load is difficult because the system is strongly three-dimensional in nature. Also the materials of the piles and of the soil have very different stiffness properties and the piles and pile cap respond primarily in bending deformation while the soil acts initially as an elastic half space. The rapid expansion in mainframe CPU and memory capacities now allows full 3-D analysis of small groups of piles connected by a stiff pile cap. The types of elements used to represent the pile shafts and the pile cap need to be selected carefully to ensure compatibility with the surrounding soil elements. Meshes were constructed to model a single pile, and two- and three-pile groups, all subject to horizontal loads. After preliminary verification, the meshes were used to calculate deflections, pile axial forces and moments, and pile/soil pressures, for the two- and three-pile groups. The two main variable parameters were the spacing of the piles, and the overhang height of the pile cap above ground. The soil modulus values were then modified in the case of a two-pile group in order to evaluate the effects of strain-softening and of pile/soil separation. It was found that the overall stiffness of the group decreased, and the bending moment at the head of the front pile became greater than in the rear pile. (A) Paper presented at the First International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, 20-22 August 1991, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8857480

Title: EFFECTS OF CAP THICKNESS AND PILE INCLINATION ON THE RESPONSE OF A PILE GROUP FOUNDATION BY A THREE-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Foreign Language: ENGLISH

Author(s): ZAMAN, MM NAJJAR, YM MUQTADIR, A

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport Research Laboratory (TRL)

Source Data: 9307TR395E

Publication Title: COMPUTERS AND GEOTECHNICS

Volume: 15 Number: 2

Publication Date: 0/00/93 Pagination: 65-86

ISBN: ISSN: 0266-352X

References: 28 Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD CROWN HOUSE, LINTON ROAD BARKING, ESSEX IG11 8JU UNITED KINGDOM

Abstract Information

Abstract: The effects of pile-cap thickness and pile inclination on the distribution of displacements, stresses, axial forces, shear forces and bending moments in different piles in a group are investigated using a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element (FE) technique. An algorithm based on the interpolation of nodal displacements and finite difference approximation of the displacement field is developed to evaluate the bending moments and the shear forces in the piles and the pile cap. An automated scheme implemented in the code enables generation of a FE mesh for both vertical and inclined piles. Emphasis is given to identify the manner in which loads are shared by individual piles in the group. (A)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8858522

Title: OBSERVED AND PREDICTED RESPONSE OF A BRACED EXCAVATION IN SOFT TO MEDIUM CLAY

Foreign Language: ENGLISH

Author(s): RAMPELLO, S TAMAGNINI, C CALABRESI, G

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport Research Laboratory (TRL)

Source Data: 9311TR385E

Publication Title: PREDICTIVE SOIL MECHANICS. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WROTH MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM, 27-29 JULY 1992, ST CATHERINE'S COLLEGE, OXFORD Publication Date: 0/00/93 Pagination: 544-61 ISBN: 0-7277-1916-5 ISSN: References: 21 Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: THOMAS TELFORD LTD THOMAS TELFORD HOUSE, 1 HERON QUAY LONDON, E14 4JD UNITED KINGDOM

Abstract Information

Abstract: A test section was established next to a 5.5 m braced excavation in made ground consisting mainly of partially weathered clay elements. A sewer trunk line had to be installed at Pietrafitta (Central Italy), where the Italian Electricity Board (ENEL) is building a new thermo-electric plant. Surface ground movements, strut loads, sheet-pile deflections and strains were measured. The relationships between the in situ observations and the construction sequences showed the strong influence of the construction activities on the sheet-pile performance. The measured ground and bracing system responses are compared with results from standard design procedures and finite element analysis. The empirical relationships by Peck (1969) and the method by Mana and Clough (1981) were used to predict the ground response, while the free earth support method and the Peck (1969) earth pressure envelopes were used to evaluate the loads in the bracing system. A plane strain, total stress finite element analysis was carried out by modelling the excavation geometry, the construction sequences and the soil-sheet pile interface. The FEM (Finite Element Method) capability of accounting for the construction procedures provides a much closer evaluation of the deflection profile, if compared with the predictions obtained by the classical design methods. The ground-surface settlements are matched better by the empirical relationships than by the finite element method, probably because of soil non-linearity or strain localisation phenomena not accounted for in the analysis. The standard design analyses appear to underestimate the loads measured in the bracing system, while a better prediction is obtained through finite elements, in spite of the simple soil model selected. (A) For the covering abstract see IRRD 859983.

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8860016

Title: BEHAVIOUR DURING CONSTRUCTION OF A PROPPED CONTIGUOUS BORED PILE WALL IN STIFF CLAY AT WALTHAMSTOW

Foreign Language: ENGLISH

Author(s): CARSWELL, I CARDER, DR GENT, AJC

Publication Information:

Source of Document: Transport Research Laboratory (TRL)

Source Data: 9312TR372E

Publication Title: TRL PROJECT REPORT

Volume: Number: PR 10

Publication Date: 0/00/93 Pagination: 46P

ISBN: ISSN: 0968-4093

References: 12 Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: TRANSPORT RESEARCH LABORATORY OLD WOKINGHAM ROAD CROWTHORNE, BERKSHIRE RG11 6AU UNITED KINGDOM

Abstract Information

Abstract: Field instrumentation has been installed to monitor the behaviour of a contiguous bored pile retaining wall founded in over- consolidated clay during and immediately after its construction as part of the A406 North Circular Road Improvement Scheme in Walthamstow. The construction sequence involved installation of the wall followed by excavation below temporary props and casting of a permanent reinforced concrete prop slab below the final carriageway level. Measurements of ground movements, total lateral stresses, and porewater pressures were made both during installation of the wall and construction of the underpass. The wall was instrumented to monitor the development of lateral movements and bending moments, and the permanent prop was instrumented to monitor loads. (A)

Miscellaneous Information:

IRRD Document Number i8860647

Title: OVERVIEW OF EVALUATION OF PILE FOUNDATION STIFFNESSES FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES

Author(s): Norris, GM

Publication Information:

Publication Title: Transportation Research Record

Volume: Number: 1336

Publication Date: 0/00/92 Pagination: pp 31-42

ISBN: 0309051746 ISSN: 03611981

Figures: 10 Fig. Tables: Photos:

References: 9 Ref. Appendices:

Publisher/Corporate Author 1: Transportation Research Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

Available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Order Number:

Abstract Information

Abstract: Methods for the assessment of the nonlinear variation in pile foundation stiffnesses are presented. Values of such lateral and vertical/rotational stiffnesses are intended for use for boundary element springs of a structural dynamic model of a highway bridge undergoing seismic analysis. Conflicts between the FHWA and Applied Technology Council approaches to foundation stiffness evaluation as well as deficiencies in these methods are noted. The methodology presented is demonstrated relative to a number of field case studies that have backcalculated values (or other responses) with which to compare. Such field case studies involve both failing and nonfailing soil responses, different soil conditions, a wide range of deflection amplitudes, and different types of loading (ambient level tests, full-scale, push-back, quick-release bridge tests, and response during earthquake excitation).

Supplementary notes: This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1336, Foundation Engineering: Seismic Design, Drilled Shafts, and Other Issues.

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